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Reconsolidation: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Sequelae of Context and Stress in Human Episodic Memory

von Dr. Jennifer L. Moore

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[1.] Jm/Fragment 085 08 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-27 23:47:32 Hindemith
BauernOpfer, Dickerson and Kemeny 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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An extensive animal and human literature reports that psychological factors can influence the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which regulates the release of cortisol (see Chapter 1). Over the past half century, many studies have specifically focused on the effects of psychological stressors on cortisol activation. Despite the extensive magnitude of this research, Dickerson and Kemeny (2004) drew two broad conclusions from this literature as a whole. First, like physical stressors, psychological stressors are indeed capable of activating the HPA axis; a number of studies have reported that laboratory tasks such as public speaking or mental arithmetic can increase cortisol levels (e.g., Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). Second, the effects of psychological stressors on this physiological system are highly variable. Many studies have failed to find cortisol changes (e.g., Manuck et al., 1991), and recent reviews have highlighted the inconsistent effects of psychological stressors on cortisol activity (e.g., Biondi & Picardi, 1999). The vast heterogeneity in the literature indicates that all types of negative situations may not uniformly trigger cortisol changes (Mason, 1968).

Biondi, M. & Picardi, A. (1999): Psychological stress and neuroendocrine function in humans: the last two decades of research., Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 68(3), 114-50.

Dickerson, S. S. & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3), 355-391.

Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K.M., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1993). The "Trier Social Stress Test" - a tool for investigating psychobiology stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology, 28, 76-81.

Manuck, S.B., Cohen, S., Rabin, B.S., Muldoon, M.F., & Bachen, E.A. (1991). Individual differences in cellular immune responses to stress. Psychological Science, 2, 111-115.

Mason, J.W. (1968). A review of psychoendocrine research on the pituitary-adrenal cortical system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 576–607.

An extensive animal and human literature documents that psychological factors can influence the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which regulates the release of cortisol, an important hormone associated with psychological, physiological, and physical health functioning. Over the past half century, hundreds of studies have specifically focused on the effects of psychological stressors on cortisol activation. Despite the magnitude of this research enterprise, only two broad conclusions can be drawn from this literature as a whole. First, like physical stressors (e.g., electric shock, prolonged exercise), psychological stressors are indeed capable of activating the HPA axis; a number of studies have reported that laboratory tasks such as public speaking or mental arithmetic can increase cortisol levels (e.g., Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). Second, the effects of psychological stressors on this physiological system are highly variable. Many studies have failed to find cortisol changes (e.g., Manuck, Cohen, Rabin, & Muldoon, 1991), and recent narrative reviews have highlighted the inconsistent effects of psychological stressors on cortisol activity (e.g., Biondi & Picardi, 1999). The tremendous heterogeneity in the literature suggests that all types of negative situations may not uniformly trigger cortisol changes (Mason, 1968).

Biondi, M., & Picardi, A. (1999). Psychological stress and neuroendocrine function in humans: The last two decades of research. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 68, 114–150.

Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K. M., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1993). The “Trier Social Stress Test” — A tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology, 28, 76–81.

*Manuck, S. B., Cohen, S., Rabin, B. S., & Muldoon, M. F. (1991). Individual differences in cellular immune response to stress. Psychological Science, 2, 111-115.

Mason, J. W. (1968). A review of psychoendocrine research on the pituitary-adrenal cortical system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 576–607.

Anmerkungen

The extent of verbatim appropriation has not been marked.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith


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