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Reconsolidation: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Sequelae of Context and Stress in Human Episodic Memory

von Dr. Jennifer L. Moore

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Statistik und Sichtungsnachweis dieser Seite findet sich am Artikelende
[1.] Jm/Fragment 112 07 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-28 00:33:19 Hindemith
BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Slotnick and Schacter 2004

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 112, Zeilen: 7-25
Quelle: Slotnick and Schacter 2004
Seite(n): 664, Zeilen: 664:right col. 19ff - 665:left col. 1ff, right col. 11-20
Slotnick and Schacter (2004) further hypothesized that true recognition is associated with greater contextual reactivation than false recognition. Recent memory retrieval-based studies have provided converging evidence for true recognition-related sensory reactivation of the same cortical regions involved in processing stimulus materials during encoding, including reactivation of motor processing regions during memory for motor sequences (Nyberg et al., 2001), reactivation of auditory processing regions during memory for sounds (Nyberg et al., 2000; Wheeler, Petersen & Buckner, 2000) and reactivation of visual processing regions during memory for pictorial stimuli (Wheeler & Buckner, 2004; Wheeler & Buckner, 2003; Vaidya et al., 2002; Wheeler, Petersen, & Buckner, 2000). Slotnick and Schacter tested their hypothesis in the visual system, given its well-known hierarchical functional-anatomic cortical processing architecture. Using abstract shapes in an old-new recognition memory task, they expected to observe greater true as compared to false recognition-related visual cortical activity.

The researchers reported evidence of a functional-anatomic dichotomy between forms of access to late and early visual processing regions: late visual processing regions supported conscious recognition (and were associated with both true and false recognition), whereas early visual processing regions supported implicit memory (and were preferentially associated with true recognition, as opposed to false recognition). Such results provide direct evidence that previously-reported memory-related reactivation in late visual processing [regions (Wheeler & Buckner, 2004; Wheeler & Buckner, 2003; Vaidya et al., 2002; Wheeler et al., 2000) is accessible to conscious recognition, which previously has only been assumed.]


Nyberg, L., Habib, R., McIntosh, A.R., & Tulving, E. (2000). Reactivation of encoding-related brain activity during memory retrieval. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 97, 11120-11124.

Slotnick, S.D. & Schacter, D.L. (2004). A sensory signature that distinguishes true from false memories. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 664-672.

Vaidya, C.J., Zhao, M., Desmond, J.E., & Gabrieli, J.D. (2002). Evidence for cortical encoding specificity in episodic memory: memoryinduced re-activation of picture processing areas. Neuropsychologia 40, 2136-2143.

Wheeler, M.E. & Buckner, R.L. (2003). Functional dissociation among components of remembering: control, perceived oldness, and content. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 3869–3880.

Wheeler, M.E. & Buckner, R.L. (2004). Functional–anatomic correlates of remembering and knowing. Neuroimage, 21, 1337– 1349.

Wheeler, M.E., Petersen, S.E., & Buckner, R.L. (2000). Memory’s echo: vivid remembering reactivates sensory-specific cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97, 11125- 11129.

[Page 664]

Based upon the differential activity found during true as compared to false recognition in the previous two studies11,13, coupled with findings of greater memory for sensory details during true versus false recognition in behavioral studies8–10, we posited that true recognition is associated with greater sensory reactivation than false recognition. Recent studies examining memory retrieval have provided converging evidence for true recognition-related sensory reactivation of the same cortical regions involved in processing stimulus materials during encoding, including reactivation of motor processing regions during memory for motor sequences19, reactivation of

[Page 665]

auditory processing regions during memory for sounds20,21 and reactivation of visual processing regions during memory for pictorial stimuli17,21–23. Capitalizing on these findings, we tested our hypothesis in the visual system, given its well-known hierarchical functional-anatomic cortical processing architecture.

In the present event-related fMRI study, we used abstract shapes in an old-new recognition memory task (Fig. 1; see Methods). According to our sensory reactivation hypothesis, we expected to observe greater true as compared to false recognition-related visual cortical activity. [...]

Here we report evidence of a functional-anatomic dichotomy between forms of access to late and early visual processing regions: late visual processing regions supported conscious recognition (and were associated with both true and false recognition), whereas early visual processing regions supported implicit memory (and were preferentially associated with true recognition, as compared to false recognition). These results provide direct evidence that previously reported memory-related reactivation in late visual processing regions17,21–23 is accessible to conscious recognition, which previously has only been assumed.


8. Schooler, J.W., Gerhard, D. & Loftus, E.F. Qualities of the unreal. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 12, 171–181 (1986).

9. Mather, M., Henkel, L.A. & Johnson, M.K. Evaluating characteristics of false memories: remember/know judgments and memory characteristics questionnaire compared. Mem. Cogn. 25, 826–837 (1997).

10. Norman, K.A. & Schacter, D.L. False recognition in younger and older adults: exploring the characteristics of illusory memories. Mem. Cogn. 25, 838–848 (1997).

11. Schacter, D.L. et al. Neuroanatomical correlates of veridical and illusory recognition memory: evidence from positron emission tomography. Neuron 17, 267–274 (1996).

13. Cabeza, R., Rao, S.M., Wagner, A.D., Mayer, A.R. & Schacter, D.L. Can medial temporal lobe regions distinguish true from false? An event-related functional MRI study of veridical and illusory recognition memory. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 4805–4810 (2001).

17. Wheeler, M.E. & Buckner, R.L. Functional dissociation among components of remembering: control, perceived oldness, and content. J. Neurosci. 23, 3869–3880 (2003).

19. Nyberg, L. et al. Reactivation of motor brain areas during explicit memory for actions. Neuroimage 14, 521–528 (2001).

20. Nyberg, L., Habib, R., McIntosh, A.R. & Tulving, E. Reactivation of encoding-related brain activity during memory retrieval. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 11120–11124 (2000).

21. Wheeler, M.E., Petersen, S.E. & Buckner, R.L. Memory’s echo: vivid remembering reactivates sensory-specific cortex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 11125–11129 (2000).

22. Vaidya, C.J., Zhao, M., Desmond, J.E. & Gabrieli, J.D.E. Evidence for cortical encoding specificity in episodic memory: memory-induced re-activation of picture processing areas. Neuropsychologia 40, 2136–2143 (2002).

23. Wheeler, M.E. & Buckner, R.L. Functional–anatomic correlates of remembering and knowing. Neuroimage 21, 1337–1349 (2004).

Anmerkungen

Taken verbatim with (nearly) all the original references. This is not - as is suggested - a report on the results of Slotnick and Schacter (2004) but a copy of part of the original article, which is not marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith


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