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Reconsolidation: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Sequelae of Context and Stress in Human Episodic Memory

von Dr. Jennifer L. Moore

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[1.] Jm/Fragment 331 04 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-13 07:35:48 Graf Isolan
Beckner et al 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 331, Zeilen: 4-9
Quelle: Beckner et al 2006
Seite(n): 518, Zeilen: r.col: 22ff
In the majority of human studies demonstrating an impairing effect of elevated cortisol on memory, the stressor or GC is applied before stimulus presentation and encoding, and recall is tested within 1-2 hours. In such a paradigm, cortisol levels are elevated during all memory phases (i.e., encoding, consolidation and retrieval). Disruption of any one of these memory processes could account for detrimental effects on memory and might obscure any facilitated process. In many of the human studies demonstrating an impairing effect of elevated cortisol on memory, the stressor or glucocorticoid is applied before stimulus presentation and learning, and recall is tested within 1–2 hr. In such a paradigm, cortisol levels are elevated during all memory phases: the learning period (initial encoding of the information), consolidation (the continuous transfer of information into longer term storage), and retrieval (recall of information from memory stores). Disruption of any one of these memory processes could account for detrimental effects of stress on memory and might also obscure any facilitated process.
Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned here.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[2.] Jm/Fragment 331 14 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-13 20:16:33 WiseWoman
Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, Kuhlmann et al 2005, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 331, Zeilen: 14-17, 19-25
Quelle: Kuhlmann et al 2005
Seite(n): 2980, Zeilen: left col. 63 - right col. 1-3.8-17
In support of such a finding, previous studies have observed enhanced consolidation of emotionally arousing material when compared with neutral material following cortisol or stress treatment (Buchanan & Lovallo, 2001; Cahill et al., 2003). [...] Previous studies (e.g., Buchanan & Lovallo, 2001; Kuhlmann et al., 2005) have further suggested that the effects of cortisol are similar for positive as well as negative material, which suggests that emotional arousal rather than valence is the critical aspect of the observed interactions. These observations are in accord with neuroimaging studies showing that the activity of the amygdala is associated with memory formation of arousing stimuli (Cahill et al., 1996; Canli et al., 2000), apparently independent of stimuli valence (Hamann et al., 1999; Kensinger & [Corkin, 2004).]

Buchanan, T.W. & Lovallo, W.R. (2001). Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 307–317.

Cahill L, Gorski L, & Le K (2003). Enhanced human memory consolidation with post-learning stress: interaction with the degree of arousal at encoding. Learning and Memory, 10, 270–274.

Kuhlmann, S., Kirschbaum, C., & Wolf, O.T. (2005a). Effects of oral cortisol treatment in healthy young women on memory retrieval of negative and neutral words. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 83, 158–162

Kuhlmann, S., Piel, M., & Wolf, O.T. (2005b). Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 2977–2982.

[Two previous studies have observed enhanced consolidation] of emotionally arousing material when compared with neutral material after cortisol or stress treatment (Buchanan and Lovallo, 2001; Cahill et al., 2003). [...] In our current study, as well as in previous studies (Buchanan and Lovallo, 2001; Kuhlmann et al., 2005), the effects of cortisol were similar for positive as well as negative material, which suggests that emotional arousal rather than valence is the crucial aspect of the observed interactions. These observations are in accord with neuroimaging studies showing that the activity of the amygdala is associated with memory formation of arousing stimuli (Cahill et al., 1996; Canli et al., 2000), apparently independent of stimuli valence (Hamann et al., 1999; Kensinger and Corkin, 2004).

Buchanan TW, Lovallo WR (2001) Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology 26:307–317.

Cahill L, Gorski L, Le K (2003) Enhanced human memory consolidation with post-learning stress: interaction with the degree of arousal at encoding. Learn Mem 10:270 –274.

Canli T, Zhao Z, Brewer J, Gabrieli JD, Cahill L (2000) Event-related activation in the human amygdala associates with later memory for individual emotional experience. J Neurosci 20:RC99(1–5).

Hamann SB, Ely TD, Grafton ST, Kilts CD (1999) Amygdala activity related to enhanced memory for pleasant and aversive stimuli. Nat Neurosci 2:289 –293.

Kensinger EA, Corkin S (2004) Two routes to emotional memory: distinct neural processes for valence and arousal. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:3310 –3315.

Kuhlmann S, Kirschbaum C, Wolf OT (2005) Effects of oral cortisol treatment in healthy young women on memory retrieval of negative and neutral words. Neurobiol Learn Mem 83:158 –162.

Anmerkungen

The references for Canli et al. (2000), Hamann et al. (1999) and Kensinger & Corkin (2004) are all missing from Jm.

Nothing has been marked as a citation. The original source is only mentioned in passing - if at all: "Kuhlmann et al., 2005" cannot be found in the list of references. The reader needs to guess if this means "Kuhlmann, S., Kirschbaum, C., & Wolf, O.T. (2005a)" or "Kuhlmann, S., Piel, M., & Wolf, O.T. (2005b)".

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Agrippina1


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