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Reconsolidation: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Sequelae of Context and Stress in Human Episodic Memory

von Dr. Jennifer L. Moore

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[1.] Jm/Fragment 332 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-12 22:02:50 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, Kuhlmann et al 2005, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 332, Zeilen: 1-9
Quelle: Kuhlmann et al 2005
Seite(n): 2980, Zeilen: right col. 17-29
Pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have recently shown that this effect is dependent on β-adrenergic activation in the amygdala (Strange & Dolan, 2004; van Stegeren et al., 2005), thereby replicating the effects demonstrated in rats (McGaugh & Roozendaal, 2002; Roozendaal, 2002). However, the role of the amygdala in emotional memory retrieval is not as well understood (Taylor et al., 1998; Dolan et al., 2000; Smith et al., 2004; Strange & Dolan, 2004). More imaging studies are warranted that investigate the effects of stress or stress hormones on memory retrieval. The only study on this topic to date in humans observed a reduced blood flow in the right posterior medial temporal lobe following cortisol treatment (de Quervain et al., 2003).

de Quervain, D.J., Henke, K., Aerni, A., Treyer, V., McGaugh, J.L., Berthold, T., Nitsch, R.M., Buck, A., Roozendaal, B., & Hock, C. (2003). Glucocorticoid-induced impairment of declarative memory retrieval is associated with reduced blood flow in the medial temporal lobe. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 1296–1302.

McGaugh, J. L. & Roozendaal, B. (2002). Role of adrenal stress hormones in forming lasting memories in the brain. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12(2), 205-210.

Roozendaal, B. (2002). Stress and memory; Opposing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation and retrieval. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 578-595.

Roozendaal, B. (2002). Stress and memory: opposing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation and memory retrieval. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 578-595.

Smith, D.M., Wakeman, D., Patel, J., & Gabriel, M. (2004). Fornix lesions impair context-related cingulothalamic neuronal patterns and concurrent discrimination learning. Behavioural Neuroscience, 118, 1225–1239.

Pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown recently that this effect is dependent on β-adrenergic activation in the amygdala (Strange and Dolan, 2004; van Stegeren et al., 2005), thereby replicating the effects demonstrated in rats (McGaugh and Roozendaal, 2002; Roozendaal, 2002). However, the role of the amygdala in emotional memory retrieval is not as well understood (Taylor et al., 1998; Dolan et al., 2000; Smith et al., 2004; Strange and Dolan, 2004). More imaging studies are warranted that investigate the effects of stress or stress hormones on memory retrieval. The only study on this topic to date observed a reduced blood flow in the right posterior medial temporal lobe after cortisol treatment (de Quervain et al., 2003).

de Quervain DJ, Henke K, Aerni A, Treyer V, McGaugh JL, Berthold T, Nitsch RM, Buck A, Roozendaal B, Hock C (2003) Glucocorticoid-induced impairment of declarative memory retrieval is associated with reduced blood flow in the medial temporal lobe. Eur J Neurosci 17:1296–1302.

Dolan RJ, Lane R, Chua P, Fletcher P (2000) Dissociable temporal lobe activations during emotional episodic memory retrieval. NeuroImage 11:203–209.

McGaugh JL, Roozendaal B (2002) Role of adrenal stress hormones in forming lasting memories in the brain. Curr Opin Neurobiol 12:205–210.

Roozendaal B (2002) Stress and memory: opposing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation and memory retrieval. Neurobiol Learn Mem 78:578–595.

Smith AP, Henson RN, Dolan RJ, Rugg MD (2004) fMRI correlates of the episodic retrieval of emotional contexts. NeuroImage 22:868–878.

Strange BA, Dolan RJ (2004) β-adrenergic modulation of emotional memory-evoked human amygdala and hippocampal responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:11454–11458.

Taylor SF, Liberzon I, Fig LM, Decker LR, Minoshima S, Koeppe RA (1998) The effect of emotional content on visual recognition memory: a PET activation study. NeuroImage 8:188–197.

van Stegeren AH, Goekoop R, Everaerd W, Scheltens P, Barkhof F, Kuijer JP, Rombouts SA (2005) Noradrenaline mediates amygdala activation in men and women during encoding of emotional material. NeuroImage 24:898–909.

Anmerkungen

The references for Strange & Dolan (2004), van Stegeren et al. (2005), Taylor et al. (1998) and Dolan et al. (2000) are all missing from Jm.

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Agrippina1

[2.] Jm/Fragment 332 10 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-13 07:35:44 Graf Isolan
Beckner 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Hindemith
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 332, Zeilen: 10-24
Quelle: Beckner 2004
Seite(n): 30, 31, Zeilen: 30: 14ff; 31: 1ff
In animal studies however, evidence suggests that while the amygdala is involved in conditioning, the hippocampus plays an important role in forming memories of contextual cues associated with the conditioning event (Phillips & LeDoux, 1994). Pugh and colleagues (1997) conditioned rats to an auditory cue while placed in a white cooler (i.e., context). A glucocorticoid antagonist administered prior to conditioning or immediately after did not affect auditory cue conditioning 24 later (i.e., freezing behaviour in response to tone in a novel environment). The treatment did, however, impair contextual fear conditioning (i.e., failing to freeze when put inside the cooler without a tone) in treated animals compared to vehicle-treated controls. Similar findings have been observed in relation to the effects of corticosteroids on spatial memory (e.g., Conrad et al., 1997). Importantly in this regard, spatial memory paradigms in animal research typically involve some form of associative learning. Generally, a behaviour is learned over several trials through operant conditioning (i.e., the location of food in a radial arm maze or escape routes). Successful recall of the learned behaviour then required memory for spatial information in these tasks, which some consider explicit (i.e., episodic memory). Evidence suggests that while the amygdala is involved with conditioning, the hippocampus plays an important role in forming memories of contextual cues associated with the conditioning event (Phillips & LeDoux, 1992, 1994). Pugh and colleagues thus conditioned rats to an auditory cue while placed in a white cooler (context). A glucocorticoid antagonist administered prior to conditioning or immediately after did not affect auditory cue conditioning 24 hours later (freezing behavior in response to tone in a novel environment). The treatment did, however, impair contextual fear conditioning (failing to freeze when put inside cooler without the tone) in treated animals compared to vehicle-treated controls (Pugh, Fleshner, & Rudy, 1997). [...]

[...]

Similar findings have been obtained on the effects of corticosteroids on spatial memory, as measured using different types of mazes. It should be noted that although these studies are typically distinguished from “associative learning” studies in the animal

[page 31]

literature, spatial memory paradigms in animal research typically involve some type of associative learning. Generally, a behavior is learned over several trials through operant conditioning (location of food in a radial arm maze or escape routes). Successful recall of the learned behavior then requires memory for spatial information in these tasks, which some consider explicit (episodic) memory.

Anmerkungen

The source is mentioned nowhere in the thesis.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1


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