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Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 24, Zeilen: 1-25
Quelle: Nadel 2008
Seite(n): 6, 9, Zeilen: 6: r.col: 27-37; 9: l.col: 6-11,18-50
[As proposed by Nadel and colleagues above, after some weeks during which a rat is] not returned to the training context, its configural representation of that context weakens, and elemental contextual representations take over. In the absence of reminders that bring the context back into the frame, hippocampal lesions yield little or no effect. However, as various investigators (e.g., Debiec et al., 2002; Land et al., 2000) have reported in the reconsolidation literature; if animals are reminded of the context before lesions are made, then these lesions subsequently serve to impair retention.

Creating an entirely new representation in response to deciding that one is in a new environment differs from updating an existing representation based on some local change (Nadel, 2008). According to Nadel, this assertion is fundamental to the distinction between memory “consolidation” and memory “reconsolidation”. It has long been assumed that a time-dependent stabilization process unfolds after the initial acquisition of a memory (Müller & Pilzecker, 1900). During this time period, termed the “consolidation” interval, memories can be disrupted by new learning experiences, cerebral trauma, hypothermia, electroconvulsive shock, and so on. This idea was initially framed within both physiological and psychological terms, and included the possibility that the content of the memory might itself be transformed during consolidation (Burnham, 1903). Hebb (1949) isolated the physiological process underlying consolidation, thereby providing a comprehensive understanding concerning how exactly memories become stabilized. Hebb assumed that memories are isolated in the brain through changes in synaptic efficacy, and that these changes depend upon complex cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to structural alterations underpinning potentiated synaptic function. According to Hebb these changes unfolded within the same cell assemblies initially activated by the experience, possibly through reverberations within these assemblies. Study of patient H.M., however, suggested that, in terms of memory for life’s episodes, consolidation involves a shift wherein brain structures are critical for memory retrieval.

[page 6]

As we argued above, after some weeks during which a rat is not returned to the training context, its configural representation of that context weakens, and elemental contextual representations take over. In the absence of reminders that bring the context back into the picture, hippocampal lesions have little or no effect. But, as Land et al., (2000) have shown, if animals are reminded of the context before lesions are made, these lesions can impair retention (for a similar result see Debiec et al., 2002).

[page 9]

Creating an entirely new representation in response to deciding that one is in a new environment is quite different than updating an existing representation on the basis of some local change. I believe this difference is fundamental to the distinction between memory “consolidation” and memory “reconsolidation”. [...]

It has long been assumed that a time-dependent stabilization process unfolds after initial acquisition of a memory (Muller and Pilzecker, 1900). During this time period, termed the “consolidation” interval, memories can be disrupted by new learning experiences, blows to the head, hypothermia, electroconvulsive shock, etc. This idea was initially couched in both physiological and psychological terms, and included the possibility that the content of the memory might itself be transformed during consolidation (cf., Burnham, 1903). Although these early writers assumed that consolidation involved a physiological process, the first detailed proposal came from Hebb (1949), who provided a way of understanding how memories could become stabilized. Hebb assumed that memories are captured in the brain through changes in synaptic efficacy, and that these changes depend upon complex cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to structural alterations underpinning potentiated synaptic function. In Hebb’s view these changes unfolded within the same cell assemblies initially activated by the experience, possibly through reverberations within these assemblies. Study of patient H.M. (Scoville and Milner, 1957), however, suggested that, at least for episodic memory, consolidation involves a shift in which brain structures are critical for memory retrieval.

Anmerkungen

The source is referenced, but is not clear for the reader that the entire page is taken from it including various references to older literature.

The phrase "As proposed by Nadel and colleagues above" seems odd in a thesis by another author.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

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