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Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 25, Zeilen: 1-25
Quelle: Nadel 2008
Seite(n): 9, Zeilen: l.col: 44ff
[Thus began a long tradition of linking what has] come to be termed systems-level memory consolidation to a shift from hippocampal to neocortical dominance in memory retrieval. The consolidation period was assumed to end when the hippocampal system was no longer essential in retrieval.

It was within this context that the concept of memory reconsolidation first emerged. A number of investigators in the 1960s and 1970s, unconvinced by the concept of consolidation, argued instead that memories were always open to alteration and/or disruption as long as they were in an active state (Lewis, 1979; Misanin et al., 1968). Memories could be reconverted into an active state through “reminders” such as exposing the organism to the CS used in the learning task, or the context in which learning took place. These ideas, though supported by several well-replicated findings, were neglected in favour of consolidation.

The notion of reconsolidation re-emerged in two labs: Sara and colleagues (e.g., Przybyslawski & Sara., 1997; Sara, 2000) and Nader, LeDoux and their colleagues (Nader et al., 2000) which both demonstrated that reminders could return well-consolidated memories for maze learning and fear conditioning, respectively, back to a fragile, labile state, and that these newly-fragile memories could be disrupted by the systemic injection of MK-801 (an NMDA channel blocker), or protein synthesis inhibitors into the amygdala, respectively. There followed a proliferation of studies demonstrating the robust nature of ‘reconsolidation’, its presence in a wide variety of species and learning situations, how it is differentiated from consolidation, and what some of the boundary conditions are that constrain it (refer to Moore & Roche, 2007, for a comprehensive account of the literature).

In a similar vein, a tradition of research using human subjects has demonstrated seemingly similar malleability in what should have been consolidated episodically mediated memories (e.g., Loftus, 2005). Much of this research employs a standard procedure wherein subjects are exposed to a complex event, and are later given misinformation concerning some detail of that event.

Thus began a long tradition of linking what has come to be called "systems-level memory consolidation" to a shift from hippocampal to neocortical dominance in memory retrieval. The consolidation period was assumed to end when the hippocampal system was no longer essential in retrieval.

It was in this context that the idea of memory reconsolidation first emerged. A number of investigators in the 1960s and 1970s, unconvinced by the consolidation idea, argued instead that memories were always open to alteration and/or disruption so long as they were in an active state (see Misanin et al., 1968, Lewis, 1979). Memories could be brought back to an active state through “reminders” such as exposing the organism to the CS used in the learning task, or the context in which learning took place. These ideas, though backed by several well-replicated findings, were pushed aside by the consolidation bandwagon[, for reasons that would be of interest in an article on the history of science, but that are beyond the scope of this effort.]

The notion of reconsolidation re-emerged in two labs: Sara and her colleagues (Przybyslawski and Sara, 1997; Sara, 2000) and Nader, LeDoux and their colleagues (Nader et al., 2000) showed that reminders could bring well-consolidated memories for maze learning and fear conditioning, respectively, back to a fragile state, and that these newly-fragile memories could be disrupted by the systemic injection of MK-801 (an NMDA receptor antagonist), or protein synthesis inhibitors into the amygdala, respectively. There has followed a torrent of studies demonstrating the robust nature of reconsolidation, its presence in a wide variety of species and learning situations, the ways in which it is differentiated from consolidation, and some of the boundary conditions that constrain it. [...]

At the same time, a tradition of research using human subjects has demonstrated apparently similar malleability in supposedly consolidated memories (see Loftus, 2005). Much of this work uses a standard procedure: subjects are exposed to a complex event, then some time later they are given misinformation about some detail of that event.

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(Hindemith) Schumann

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