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Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 50, Zeilen: 1-25
Quelle: Lee 2009
Seite(n): 7, Zeilen: 4-28
[Specifically, Alberini (2005) suggests that] repeated reactivations (which might be implicit during sleep) gradually increase memory stability as part of a lengthy consolidation process, such that when sufficient time has elapsed a memory can no longer be disrupted, but it can be added to or modified. Dudai and Eisenberg (2004) similarly integrate reconsolidation within a ‘lingering consolidation’ process, whereby the reactivation and reconsolidation cycle progressively stabilizes a memory. In contrast to such emphases on reconsolidation enhancing memory stability, memory updating does not require that reconsolidation has an endogenous role to play in the ongoing processing of a memory trace that requires no further modification. Indeed, the reverse has been suggested (see Lee, 2009), in that a memory will persist in a stable and fixed form only if reconsolidation is not engaged, given that reconsolidation is the mechanistic instantiation of memory updating. Thus, reconsolidation only plays a role in enhancing memory stability if such enhancement is dependent upon modification of the memory. Instead of focusing on reconsolidation constraints, Morris and colleagues (2006) argue instead for a mode-based explanation of reconsolidation according to which the dual activation of retrieval and encoding states drives reconsolidation processes. This model is well suited to account for situations wherein new experiences result in profound changes to the memory; a change in the location of an escape platform in a water maze being the example used for the delayed non-mapping to place task. However, it is not clear either how it might be adapted to conditions of more negligible memory modifications (e.g., strength), or whether the activation of an ‘encoding mode’ is sufficient to trigger reconsolidation. For example, extinction training involves both memory retrieval as well as new memory encoding, but under such circumstances reconsolidation is not obviously engaged (e.g., Lee et al., 2006; Suzuki et al., 2004; Pedreira & Moldonado, 2003). Moreover, the mode requirement appears to be an additional, as opposed to an alternative, boundary condition to those already discussed. Specifically, Alberini [6] suggests that repeated reactivations (which may be implicit during sleep) gradually increase memory stability as part of a lengthy consolidation process, such that when sufficient time has elapsed, a memory can no longer be disrupted, but can be added to or modified. Dudai & Eisenberg [8] similarly integrate reconsolidation within a “lingering consolidation” process, whereby the reactivation and reconsolidation cycle progressively stabilises a memory (Fig. 1A). In contrast to these emphases on reconsolidation enhancing memory stability, the present focus on memory updating does not require that reconsolidation has an endogenous part to play in the ongoing processing of a memory that requires no further modification. Indeed, the reverse may be suggested, in that a memory will persist in a stable and fixed form only if reconsolidation is not engaged, precisely because reconsolidation is the mechanistic instantiation of memory updating. Thus reconsolidation only plays a part in enhancing memory stability if such enhancement is dependent upon modification of the memory.

Rather than focussing on parametric factors in the constraint of reconsolidation, Morris et al. [36] argue for a mode-based explanation. Namely it may be the dual activation of retrieval and encoding states that drives reconsolidation processes. This model is well suited to account for situations in which new experiences result in profound changes to the memory; a change in the location of an escape platform in a water maze being the example used for the delayed non-mapping to place task [36]. However, it is not clear either how it may be adapted to conditions of more minor memory modifications (such as strength), or whether the activation of an “encoding mode” is sufficient to trigger reconsolidation. For example, extinction training clearly involves memory retrieval as well as new memory encoding, but under such circumstances reconsolidation is not obviously engaged [27, 50, 51, 53]. Moreover, the mode requirement appears to be an additional, rather than alternative, boundary condition to those discussed previously.


6. Alberini CM. Mechanisms of memory stabilization: are consolidation and reconsolidation similar or distinct processes? Trends Neurosci. 2005; 28:51–56. [PubMed: 15626497]

8. Dudai Y, Eisenberg M. Rites of passage of the engram: reconsolidation and the lingering consolidation hypothesis. Neuron. 2004; 44:93–100. [PubMed: 15450162]

27. Lee JLC, et al. Reconsolidation and extinction of conditioned fear: inhibition and potentiation. J Neurosci. 2006; 26:10051–10056. [PubMed: 17005868]

37. Rossato JI, et al. Retrieval induces hippocampal-dependent reconsolidation of spatial memory. Learn Mem. 2006; 13:431–440. [PubMed: 16882860]

50. Suzuki A, et al. Memory reconsolidation and extinction have distinct temporal and biochemical signatures. J Neurosci. 2004; 24:4787–4795. [PubMed: 15152039]

51. Pedreira ME, Maldonado H. Protein synthesis subserves reconsolidation or extinction depending on reminder duration. Neuron. 2003; 38:863–869. [PubMed: 12818173]

53. Eisenberg M, et al. Stability of retrieved memory: Inverse correlation with trace dominance. Science. 2003; 301:1102–1104. [PubMed: 12934010]

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