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Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 108, Zeilen: 4-23
Quelle: Hayes et al 2007
Seite(n): 2, Zeilen: 8-27
Further, the majority of context-dependent research has been conducted in one of only two environmental or global contexts, subsequently testing memory retrieval in either in the same or an alternate environmental context.

Other contextual manipulations have focused on more local aspects of visual context combined with predominantly verbal materials, such as text colour, background color, or font. Dulsky (1935), in a series of experiments, reported a decrease in memory performance when the background colour of target nonsense syllables changed between study and test. Since then, many experiments have demonstrated decreased retrieval performance with changes between encoding and retrieval in the local verbal context (Tulving & Osler, 1968; Light & Carter-Sobell, 1970), font format and orientation (Graf & Ryan, 1990), background colour (Mori & Graf, 1996), or foreground and background colour (Dougal & Rotello, 1999). In a comprehensive series of experiments, Murnane and Phelps (1993, 1994, 1995) manipulated context by changing foreground (colour of the word), background (colour of computer screen), and the location of the word (upper left, lower right, and so on). In multiple experiments, a context shift decrement (i.e., decreased memory for items presented in different contexts at study and test) was observed. The context shift decrement was significantly enhanced when the words were originally studied in a visually rich context (computer-generated virtual reality scenes, such as on a chalkboard in a classroom) relative to simple visual contexts (coloured font, coloured background), or in various locations on the computer screen (Murnane et al., 1999).

The aforementioned experiments presented verbal materials in one of only two environmental or global contexts (underwater or on land), and then memory was tested either in the same or the alternate environmental context.

Other contextual manipulations have focused on more local aspects of visual context combined with verbal materials, such as text color, background color, or font. Dulsky (1935), in an elegant series of experiments, reported a decrease in memory performance when the background color of target nonsense syllables changed between study and test. Since then, many experiments have demonstrated decreased memory performance with changes between encoding and retrieval in the local verbal context (Tulving and Osler, 1968; Light and Carter-Sobell, 1970), font format and orientation (Graf and Ryan, 1990), background color (Mori and Graf, 1996), or foreground and background color (Dougal and Rotello, 1999). In a comprehensive series of experiments, Murnane and Phelps (1993, 1994, 1995) manipulated context by changing foreground (color of the word), background (color of computer screen), and the location of the word (upper left, lower right, etc.). In multiple experiments, a context shift decrement (CSD) — decreased memory for items presented in different contexts at study and test was — observed. The CSD was significantly enhanced when the words were originally studied in a visually rich context (computer-generated virtual reality scenes, such as on a chalkboard in a classroom) relative to simple visual contexts (colored font, colored background, or in various locations on the computer screen; Murnane et al., 1999).

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