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Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 150, Zeilen: 6-25
Quelle: Dalton 1993
Seite(n): 224, Zeilen: r.col: 21ff
Empirical support for the notion that stimulus familiarity plays a role takes several forms. Davies and Milne (1982) showed participants pictures of both novel and famous faces while varying background, pose, and expression. They found reduced recognition performance for novel, but not famous, faces as a function of all three changes, thereby demonstrating differential local context effects for familiar as opposed to novel faces. As such, it would seem plausible that modulation by the environmental context might differ for novel and familiar stimuli. In any case, the important role of stimulus familiarity is also supported by findings within the domain of animal learning, whereby context effects on recognition-like tasks have traditionally been more reliable. Recognizing the importance of the relation between stimulus and context, Lubow, Rifkin, and Alek (1976) showed that exposing a stimulus prior to presenting it in a novel environmental context (i.e., making it familiar) enhanced perceptual learning, in comparison with the simple presentation of a novel stimulus in the learning context.

There are other salient reasons why a stimulus attribute such as familiarity might be a parameter of contextual modulation. Whether contextual attributes such as temporal or spatial information are present or absent constitutes one of the critical distinctions that Tulving (1972) makes between episodic and semantic memory systems. According to Tulving, multiple presentations of an item allow that item to be abstracted from its context. As the item representation becomes progressively more semantic in nature, its reliance on specific contextual attributes for recognition is diminished.


Davis [sic], G. & Milne, A. (1982). Recognising faces in and out of context. Current Psychological Research, 2, 235-246.

Lubow, R. E., Rifkin, B., & Alek, M. (1976). The context effect: the relationship between stimulus pre-exposure and environmental pre-exposure determines subsequent learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 38-47.

Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of Memory (pp. 382-404). New York: Academic Press.

Empirical support for the notion that stimulus familiarity plays a role takes several forms. Davies and Milne (1982) showed subjects pictures of both novel and celebrity faces while varying background, pose, and expression. They found reduced recognition performance for novel, but not celebrity, faces as a function of all three changes. Unfortunately, they used a small number of faces and the performance for the familiar faces was at ceiling, causing some interpretive problems with their data. Yet the demonstration of differential local context effects for familiar as opposed to novel faces was encouraging. It seemed plausible that modulation by the environmental context might differ for novel and familiar stimuli as well.

The important role of stimulus familiarity is also supported by results in the domain of animal learning, where context effects on recognition-like tasks have traditionally been more reliable. Recognizing the importance of the relation between stimulus and context, Lubow, Rifkin, and Alek (1976) showed that exposing a stimulus prior to presenting it in a novel environmental context (i.e., making it familiar) enhanced perceptual learning, in comparison with the simple presentation of a novel stimulus in the learning context.

There are other salient reasons why a stimulus attribute like familiarity might be a parameter of contextual modulation. Whether contextual attributes such as temporal or spatial information are present or absent constitutes one of the critical distinctions that Tulving (1972) makes between episodic and semantic memory systems. According to Tulving, multiple presentations of an item allow that item to be abstracted from its context. As the item representation becomes progressively more semantic in nature, its reliance on specific contextual attributes for recognition is diminished.


DAVIES, G., & MILNE, A. (1982). Recognising faces in and out of context. Current Psychological Research, 2, 235-246.

LUBOW, R. E., RIFKIN, B., & ALEK, M. (1976). The context effect: The relationship between stimulus pre-exposure and environmental pre-exposure determines subsequent learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 38-47.

TULVING, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of memory (pp. 382-404). New York: Academic Press.

Anmerkungen

The source is mentioned further up, but without indication that the following two paragraphs might have been taken from it. Continued on the next page: Jm/Fragment_151_01

Sichter
(Hindemith), Graf Isolan

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