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Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 331, Zeilen: 14-17, 19-25
Quelle: Kuhlmann et al 2005
Seite(n): 2980, Zeilen: left col. 63 - right col. 1-3.8-17
In support of such a finding, previous studies have observed enhanced consolidation of emotionally arousing material when compared with neutral material following cortisol or stress treatment (Buchanan & Lovallo, 2001; Cahill et al., 2003). [...] Previous studies (e.g., Buchanan & Lovallo, 2001; Kuhlmann et al., 2005) have further suggested that the effects of cortisol are similar for positive as well as negative material, which suggests that emotional arousal rather than valence is the critical aspect of the observed interactions. These observations are in accord with neuroimaging studies showing that the activity of the amygdala is associated with memory formation of arousing stimuli (Cahill et al., 1996; Canli et al., 2000), apparently independent of stimuli valence (Hamann et al., 1999; Kensinger & [Corkin, 2004).]

Buchanan, T.W. & Lovallo, W.R. (2001). Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 307–317.

Cahill L, Gorski L, & Le K (2003). Enhanced human memory consolidation with post-learning stress: interaction with the degree of arousal at encoding. Learning and Memory, 10, 270–274.

Kuhlmann, S., Kirschbaum, C., & Wolf, O.T. (2005a). Effects of oral cortisol treatment in healthy young women on memory retrieval of negative and neutral words. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 83, 158–162

Kuhlmann, S., Piel, M., & Wolf, O.T. (2005b). Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 2977–2982.

[Two previous studies have observed enhanced consolidation] of emotionally arousing material when compared with neutral material after cortisol or stress treatment (Buchanan and Lovallo, 2001; Cahill et al., 2003). [...] In our current study, as well as in previous studies (Buchanan and Lovallo, 2001; Kuhlmann et al., 2005), the effects of cortisol were similar for positive as well as negative material, which suggests that emotional arousal rather than valence is the crucial aspect of the observed interactions. These observations are in accord with neuroimaging studies showing that the activity of the amygdala is associated with memory formation of arousing stimuli (Cahill et al., 1996; Canli et al., 2000), apparently independent of stimuli valence (Hamann et al., 1999; Kensinger and Corkin, 2004).

Buchanan TW, Lovallo WR (2001) Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology 26:307–317.

Cahill L, Gorski L, Le K (2003) Enhanced human memory consolidation with post-learning stress: interaction with the degree of arousal at encoding. Learn Mem 10:270 –274.

Canli T, Zhao Z, Brewer J, Gabrieli JD, Cahill L (2000) Event-related activation in the human amygdala associates with later memory for individual emotional experience. J Neurosci 20:RC99(1–5).

Hamann SB, Ely TD, Grafton ST, Kilts CD (1999) Amygdala activity related to enhanced memory for pleasant and aversive stimuli. Nat Neurosci 2:289 –293.

Kensinger EA, Corkin S (2004) Two routes to emotional memory: distinct neural processes for valence and arousal. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:3310 –3315.

Kuhlmann S, Kirschbaum C, Wolf OT (2005) Effects of oral cortisol treatment in healthy young women on memory retrieval of negative and neutral words. Neurobiol Learn Mem 83:158 –162.

Anmerkungen

The references for Canli et al. (2000), Hamann et al. (1999) and Kensinger & Corkin (2004) are all missing from Jm.

Nothing has been marked as a citation. The original source is only mentioned in passing - if at all: "Kuhlmann et al., 2005" cannot be found in the list of references. The reader needs to guess if this means "Kuhlmann, S., Kirschbaum, C., & Wolf, O.T. (2005a)" or "Kuhlmann, S., Piel, M., & Wolf, O.T. (2005b)".

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