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History and prospect of Islamic criminal law with respect to the human rights

von Mohamed Al Awabdeh

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[1.] Maa/Fragment 043 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-09-10 15:22:08 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Gesichtet, Maa, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Stockman 1998, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
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Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 43, Zeilen: 1-26
Quelle: Stockman 1998
Seite(n): 1 (Internetquelle), Zeilen: -
[Muhammad also condemned the town's] economic and social inequalities. After ten years the Muslim community grew slowly but tension increased to the point where the Muslims no longer could be protected by their clans against violence. But without clan protection one was in grave danger, because in the absence of police and courts it was the fear of starting a blood feud that prevented people from killing each other.44

In one famous case a non-Muslim tried to force his Muslim slave, Bilál, a black man, to recant. Bilál was tied to the ground and heavy stones were piled on his chest in order to torture him. The torture ended when a Muslim purchased Bilál and then emancipated him. In 615 Muhammad had to send some of his followers to Abyssinia, where the Christian king offered them refuge, an act of generosity that Muslims remember to this day.

In 619, his wife Khadjah died, as did Muhammad's uncle, who had also protected him from murder. This put Muhammad in grave danger. In 620 he was invited to move to the city of Yathrib, two hundred miles to the north, and to become the chief arbitrator of the city's feuding tribes. The situation in Mecca finally became unbearable and Muhammad and two hundred of his followers had to flee the city in 622. This event is called the hijra or hegira (the Latin pronunciation of the Arabic word) and marks the beginning of Islam as a religion. Dates in the Islamic calendar are reckoned from the hijra.

In Medina Muhammad began as leader of one of the town's eight groups, but he gradually emerged as the town's leader, and therefore he was able to implement the social changes that the revelations had demanded. This sets Muhammad off from Jesus in a sharp way; while Jesus was a prophetic figure, he never ruled a state; Muhammad was both prophet and statesman. This makes his career radically different from that of Jesus.


44 Hamidullah, Muhammad: „ Le Prophète et l’Islam“, Paris 1959, 213ff.

Muhammad also condemned the town's economic inequalities. After ten years the Muslim community grew slowly but tension increased to the point where the Muslims no longer could be protected by their clans against violence. Without clan protection one was in grave danger, because in the absence of police and courts it was the fear of starting a blood feud that prevented people from killing each other. In one famous case a non-Muslim tried to force his Muslim slave, Bilál, a black man, to recant. Bilál was tied to the ground and heavy stones were piled on his chest in order to torture him. The torture ended when a Muslim purchased Bilál, then emancipated him. In 615 Muhammad had to send some of his followers to Abyssinia, where the Christian king offered them refuge, an act of generosity that Muslims remember to this day.

In 619 Khadjah died, as did Muhammad's uncle, who also protected him from murder. This put Muhammad in grave danger. In 620 he was invited to move to the city of Yathrib, two hundred miles to the north, and become the chief arbitrator of the city's feuding tribes. The situation in Mecca finally became impossible and Muhammad and two hundred of his followers had to flee the city in the year 622. This event is called the hijra or hegira (the Latin pronunciation of the Arabic word) and marks the beginning of Islam as a religion. Dates in the Islamic calendar are reckoned from the hijra.

In Medina Muhammad began as leader of one of the town's eight groups, but He gradually emerged as the town's leader, and therefore he was able to implement the social changes that the revelations had demanded that Mecca make. This sets Muhammad off from Jesus in a sharp way: while Jesus was a prophetic figure, he never ruled a state; Muhammad was both prophet and statesman. This makes his career radically different from that of Jesus.

Anmerkungen

Kein Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


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