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History and prospect of Islamic criminal law with respect to the human rights

von Mohamed Al Awabdeh

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[1.] Maa/Fragment 044 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2013-09-10 15:22:16 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Gesichtet, Maa, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Stockman 1998, Verschleierung

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Graf Isolan
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Seite: 44, Zeilen: 1-7, 9-17, 20-28
Quelle: Stockman 1998
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Medina was a large agricultural town containing pagan and Jewish tribes. The pagans embraced Islam but the Jews did not, which prompted Qur'anic revelations criticizing Jews and Christians for their obstinacy. Considerable friction arose between the Jews and Muslims and eventually led to the expulsion of the Jewish community from the town. Medina was a trading rival of Mecca, and the inhabitants of Mecca decided to go to war against Medina and their cousin. This made the prophet a military leader and an Islamic warrior and further reinforced the notion of a fusion of state and religious affairs.45

Warfare continued sporadically for seven years, with Muslim victories and defeats. In 627, Mecca soldiers besieged Medina for two weeks and almost took the city. Muhammad acquired more allies, however, as tribes became Muslim. In 630 Mecca surrendered to a Muslim army, converted to Islam, and became the centre of an Islamic Arabia. Muhammad and 'Al cleansed the ka'bah of its idols, restoring it to the worship of the one true God. Pilgrimage to Mecca which had existed for centuries before the arrival of Islam as a sort of pagan worship became a Muslim pilgrimage. In the course of next two years, most of Arabia accepted Muhammad as their leader and nominally became Muslim. In 632 Muhammad died at the age of 63, leaving behind him a new and rapidly growing faith.

There is a strong tension in Islam between efforts to view him as an ordinary man and efforts to exalt him as a miracle-working prophet. But for all Muslims, Muhammad is seen as the epitome of Muslim life, and Muslims have long sought to emulate him. His actions are seen as a model. To give but one example, the obligatory Muslim pilgrimage is patterned after Muhammad's pilgrimage in 629. Stories about his actions and words, called hadith, circulated and were passed down orally within the Muslim community; within a century or two of Muhammad's death they were written down and closely scrutinized by Muslim scholars for their historical accuracy. The hadith became a major pillar of the [Muslim tradition, supplementing the Koran itself when it was silent about a crucial matter.46]


45 Hammidullah, Le Prophète et l’Islam, Paris 1959, 256 ff.

46 Endreß, Gerhard, Einführung in die islamische Geschichte, München 1982, 342ff

Medina was a large agricultural town containing pagan and Jewish tribes. The pagans embraced Islam but the Jews did not, which prompted Qur'anic revelations criticizing Jews and Christians for their obstinacy. Considerable friction arose between the Jews and Muslims and eventually led to the expulsion of the Jews from the town. Medina was a trading rival with Mecca, and the Meccans decided to go to war against Medina and their cousin. Muhammad then became a general as well.

Warfare continued sporadically for seven years, with Muslim victories and defeats. In 627 Meccans besieged Medina for two weeks and almost took the city. Muhammad acquired more allies, however, as tribes became Muslim. In 630 Mecca surrendered to a Muslim army, converted to Islam, and became the center of an Islamic Arabia. Muhammad and 'Al cleansed the ka'bah of its idols, restoring it to the worship of the one true God. Pilgrimage to Mecca became Muslim pilgrimage. In the next two years, most of Arabia accepted Muhammad as their leader and nominally became Muslim. On 8 June 632, at age 65, Muhammad died.

How is Muhammad perceived by Muslims? There is a strong tension in Islam between efforts to view him as an ordinary man and efforts to exalt him as a miracle-working prophet. But for all Muslims, Muhammad is seen as the epitome of Muslim life, and Muslims have long sought to emulate him. His actions are seen as a model; for example, Muslim pilgrimage is patterned after Muhammad's pilgrimage in 629. Stories about his actions and words, called hadth, long have circulated in the Muslim community; within a century or two of Muhammad's death they were written down and closely scrutinized by Muslim scholars for their historical accuracy. The hadth became a major pillar of the Muslim tradition, supplementing the Qur'an itself when the Qur'an was silent about a crucial matter.

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Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


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