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Crosstalk between autoreactive T cells and alveolar type II epithelial cells in inflammation and tolerance

von Dr. Marcus Gereke

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[1.] Mag/Fragment 008 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-15 12:45:16 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Gesichtet, Lipscomb and Masten 2002, Mag, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 8, Zeilen: 1-9
Quelle: Lipscomb and Masten 2002
Seite(n): 116, Zeilen: right col. 17-30
[Active suppression of immature DC maturation by alveolar macrophages may explain why airway and] intraepithelial DC remain immature during their steady-state migration to lung-associated lymph nodes (Holt, 1993; Lipscomb et al., 1993). Furthermore, autocrine production of IL-10 by immature DC can inhibit surface expression of MHC class-I and -II molecules and exert a generalized inhibitory effect on T cell proliferation (Stumbles et al., 1998). On exposure to inhaled allergens, the antigen may simply be insufficient in providing a danger signal to overcome suppression by alveolar macrophages and IL-10. However, if a danger signal is present at the tissue site, DC mature and migrate in greater number to draining lymph nodes to stimulate CD4+ T cell clonal expansion and differentiation.

Holt PG. Development of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in human lung disease: a normal host defence mechanism awaiting therapeutic exploitation? Thorax. 1993 Nov; 48 (11): 1097-8.

Holt PG. Pulmonary dendritic cell populations. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1993; 329: 557-62. Review.

Lipscomb MF, Pollard AM, Yates JL. A role for TGF-beta in the suppression by murine bronchoalveolar cells of lung dendritic cell initiated immune responses. Reg Immunol. 1993 May-Aug; 5 (3-4): 151-7.

Stumbles PA, Thomas JA, Pimm CL, Lee PT, Venaille TJ, Proksch S, Holt PG. Resting respiratory tract dendritic cells preferentially stimulate T helper cell type 2 (Th2) responses and require obligatory cytokine signals for induction of Th1 immunity. J Exp Med. 1998 Dec 7; 188 (11): 2019-31.

Active suppression of immature DC maturation by alveolar macrophages may explain why airway and intraepithelial DCs remain immature during their steady-state migration to lung-associated lymph nodes (LALNs) (141, 203). Furthermore, autocrine production of IL-10 by immature DCs can inhibit surface expression of MHC class II and exert a generalized inhibitory effect on T cell proliferation (238, 334). On exposure to inhaled allergens, the antigen may simply be insufficient in providing a danger signal to overcome suppression by alveolar macrophages and IL-10. However, if a danger signal is present at the tissue site, DCs mature and migrate in greater numbers to the draining lymph nodes to stimulate CD4 T cell clonal expansion and differentiation.

141. HOLT PG. Macrophage: dendritic cell interaction in regulation of IgE response in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 23: 4–6, 1993.

203. LIPSCOMB MF, POLLARD AM, AND YATES JL. A role for TGF-beta in the suppression by murine bronchoalveolar cells of lung dendritic cell initiated immune responses. Reg Immunol 5: 151–157, 1993.

238. MOORE KW, O’GARRA A, DE WAAL MALEFYT R, VIEIRA P, AND MOSMANN TR. Interleukin-10. Annu Rev Immunol 11: 165–190, 1993.

334. STUMBLES PA, THOMAS JA, PIMM CL, LEE PT, VENAILLE TJ, PROKSCH S, AND HOLT PG. Resting respiratory tract dendritic cells preferentially stimulate T helper cell type 2 (Th2) responses and require obligatory cytokine signals for induction of Th1 immunity. J Exp Med 188: 2019–2031, 1998.

Anmerkungen

Largely identical, without any part of it marked as a citation. No source given.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[2.] Mag/Fragment 008 11 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-14 10:40:28 WiseWoman
Fragment, Gesichtet, Mag, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Tschernig et al 1999, Verschleierung

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Hindemith
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 8, Zeilen: 11-12; 16-28
Quelle: Tschernig et al 1999
Seite(n): 66, 69, Zeilen: 66: l.col: 1-3, 9-19; 69: r.col: 13-20
Lymphocytes play a significant role in lung disorders, for example sarcoidosis, asthma, and rejection after transplantation (Berman et al., 1990). [...] Since the lung has no afferent lymphatic vessels, the blood is the starting point for lymphocyte immigration. Lymphocytes migrate to the lung vascular endothelium (marginal pool) and enter the interstitial lung tissue (interstitial pool), where the lymphocyte composition is different from blood and bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) (Fliegert et al., 1996). In contrast to peripheral blood lymphocytes, mainly activated T cells are found in BAL of humans and mice (Curtis et al., 1995; Saltini et al., 1990). This immunological status confers lymphocytes appropriate defense mechanisms to such a vulnerable organ. The expression of adhesion molecules depends on the compartment from which the cells are recruited, indicating that local activation and expression of adhesion molecules is induced by the microenvironment. Possible candidates for such activators are dendritic cells and macrophages or components of the extracellular matrix (Holt, 1993; van Haarst et al., 1994).

Berman JS, Beer DJ, Theodore AC, Kornfeld H, Bernardo J, Center DM. Lymphocyte recruitment to the lung. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990 Jul; 142 (1): 238-57. Review.

Curtis JL, Kim S, Scott PJ, Buechner-Maxwell VA. Adhesion receptor phenotypes of murine lung CD4+ T cells during the pulmonary immune response to sheep erythrocytes. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1995 May; 12 (5): 520-30.

Fliegert FG, Tschernig T, Pabst R. Comparison of lymphocyte subsets, monocytes, and NK cells in three different lung compartments and peripheral blood in the rat. Exp Lung Res. 1996 Nov-Dec; 22 (6): 677-90.

Holt PG. Development of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in human lung disease: a normal host defence mechanism awaiting therapeutic exploitation? Thorax. 1993 Nov; 48 (11): 1097-8.

Holt PG. Pulmonary dendritic cell populations. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1993; 329: 557-62. Review.

Saltini C, Kirby M, Trapnell BC, Tamura N, Crystal RG. Biased accumulation of T lymphocytes with "memory"-type CD45 leukocyte common antigen gene expression on the epithelial surface of the human lung. J Exp Med. 1990 Apr 1; 171 (4):1123-40.

van Haarst JM, Hoogsteden HC, de Wit HJ, Verhoeven GT, Havenith CE, Drexhage HA. Dendritic cells and their precursors isolated from human bronchoalveolar lavage: immunocytologic and functional properties. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1994 Sep; 11 (3): 344-50.

[page 66]

Lymphocytes play a significant role in lung disorders, e.g. sarcoidosis, asthma, and rejection after transplantation (for review see [1, 2]). [...] In contrast to the peripheral blood, mainly activated (CD4+, CD45Rlow and L-selectinlow) T-cells were found in the BAL of humans [4] and mice [5]. In humans only blood and BAL have been studied [6]. Since the lungs have no afferent lymphatics the blood is the starting point for lymphocyte immigration. Lymphocytes marginate to the lung vascular endothelium (marginal pool) and enter the interstitial lung tissue (interstitial pool), where the lymphocyte composition was different from blood and BAL when examined in healthy rats [7].

[page 69]

This immunological status is appropriate for such a vulnerable organ. The expression of adhesion molecules depends on the compartment from which the cells were extracted, leading to evidence that local activation and expression of adhesion molecules is induced by the microenvironment. Possible candidates for such activators are dendritic cells and macrophages or components of the extracellular matrix [21, 22].


1. Richeldi L, Franchi A, Rovatti E, Cossarizza A, duBois RM, Saltini C. Lymphocytes. In: Crystal RG, West JB, eds. The Lung. New York, Raven, 1996; pp. 803±820.

2. Berman JS, Beer DJ, Theodore AC, Kornfeld H, Bernardo J, Center DM. Lymphocyte recruitment to the lung. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990; 142: 238±257.

4. Saltini C, Kirby M, Trapnell BC, Tamura N, Crystal RG. Biased accumulation of T lymphocytes with "memory"- type CD45 leukocyte common antigen gene expression on the epithelial surface of the human lung. J Exp Med 1990; 171: 1123±1140.

5. Curtis JL, Kim S, Scott PJ, Buechner-Maxwell VA. Adhesion receptor phenotypes on murine lung CD4+ T cells during the pulmonary immune response to sheep erythrocytes. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1995; 12: 520± 530.

6. Pabst R, Tschernig T. Lymphocytes in the lung: an often neglected cell. Anat Embryol 1995; 192: 293±299.

7. Fliegert F, Tschernig T, Pabst R. Comparison of lymphocyte subsets, monocytes, and NK cells in three different lung compartments and peripheral blood in the rat. Exp Lung Res 1996; 22: 677±690.

21. Holt PG. Regulation of antigen-presenting cell functions in lung and airway tissues. Eur Respir J 1993; 6: 120± 129.

22. van Haarst JMW, Hoogsteden HC, de Wit HJ, Verhoeven GT, Havenith CEG, Drexhage HA. Dendritic cells and their precursors isolated from human bronchoalveolar lavage: immunocytologic and functional properties. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1994; 11: 344±350.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned here.

Note, there are two publications "Holt, 1993" listed in the bibliography.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann


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