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Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 7, Zeilen: 15-31
Quelle: Lipscomb and Masten 2002
Seite(n): 116, Zeilen: left col. 36-46.48-49 - right col. 1-10.17-21
In the lung, DC reside within and beneath airway epithelium, in alveolar septae, in the connective tissue surrounding pulmonary veins and airway vessels, and with the lung capillaries of the lung parenchyma (Lipscomb et al., 1995). DC in the airway epithelium have an immature phenotype and exhibit a rapid turnover (Holt et al., 1994). DC that are resident within alveolar septae and in connective tissue surrounding vessels have a more mature phenotype than airway DC (Gong et al., 1992). In contrast to DC that are resident within the lung, in the vascular compartment circulating precursor DC are present (Suda et al., 1998). One role of lung DC is to provide protection against infectious agents by initiating immune response. An equally important role is to generate tolerance to inhaled allergens in normal noninflamed lungs. In this regard, immature DC continuously leave the peripheral blood and take over a surveillance position in lung tissue, avidly sampling the antigenic environment. In the steady state, lung DC likely remain relatively immature and constitutively migrate in low numbers into regional lymph nodes where they induce anergy, deletion of T cells, or a weak TH2-like response to air-borne antigens that is eventually downregulated (Stumbles et al., 1998). Active suppression of immature DC maturation by alveolar macrophages may explain why airway and [intraepithelial DC remain immature during their steady-state migration to lung-associated lymph nodes (Holt, 1993; Lipscomb et al., 1993).]

Gong JL, McCarthy KM, Telford J, Tamatani T, Miyasaka M, Schneeberger EE. Intraepithelial airway dendritic cells: a distinct subset of pulmonary dendritic cells obtained by microdissection. J Exp Med. 1992 Mar 1; 175 (3): 797-807.

Holt PG. Development of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in human lung disease: a normal host defence mechanism awaiting therapeutic exploitation? Thorax. 1993 Nov; 48 (11): 1097-8.

Holt PG. Pulmonary dendritic cell populations. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1993; 329: 557-62. Review.

Holt PG, Haining S, Nelson DJ, Sedgwick JD. Origin and steady-state turnover of class II MHC-bearing dendritic cells in the epithelium of the conducting airways. J Immunol. 1994 Jul 1; 153 (1): 256-61.

Lipscomb MF, Pollard AM, Yates JL. A role for TGF-beta in the suppression by murine bronchoalveolar cells of lung dendritic cell initiated immune responses. Reg Immunol. 1993 May-Aug; 5 (3-4): 151-7.

Lipscomb MF, Bice DE, Lyons CR, Schuyler MR, Wilkes D. The regulation of pulmonary immunity. Adv Immunol. 1995; 59: 369-455. Review.

Stumbles PA, Thomas JA, Pimm CL, Lee PT, Venaille TJ, Proksch S, Holt PG. Resting respiratory tract dendritic cells preferentially stimulate T helper cell type 2 (Th2) responses and require obligatory cytokine signals for induction of Th1 immunity. J Exp Med. 1998 Dec 7; 188 (11): 2019-31.

Suda T, McCarthy K, Vu Q, McCormack J, Schneeberger EE. Dendritic cell precursors are enriched in the vascular compartment of the lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1998 Nov; 19 (5): 728-37.

In the lung, DCs reside within and beneath airway epithelium, in alveolar septae, in the connective tissue surrounding pulmonary veins and airway vessels, and within the lung capillaries of the lung parenchyma (reviewed in Ref. 202). DCs in the airway epithelium express an immature phenotype and exhibit a rapid turnover (142, 233). DCs residing within alveolar septae and in connective tissue surrounding vessels have a more mature phenotype than airway DCs (121). DCs residing within the lung vascular compartment represent circulating precursor DCs (336). [...] One role of lung DCs is to provide protection against infectious agents by initiating type 1 immune response. An equally important role is to generate tolerance to inhaled allergens in normal noninflamed lungs. In this regard, immature DCs continuously leave the peripheral blood and assume a surveillance position in lung tissue, avidly sampling the antigenic environment. In the steady state, lung DCs likely remain relatively immature and constituitively migrate in low numbers into regional lymph nodes where they induce either anergy, deletion of T cells, or a weak Th2-like response to air-borne antigens that eventually is downregulated (334). [...] Active suppression of immature DC maturation by alveolar macrophages may explain why airway and intraepithelial DCs remain immature during their steady-state migration to lung-associated lymph nodes (LALNs) (141, 203).

121. GONG JL, MCCARTHY KM, TELFORD J, TAMATANI T, MIYASAKA M, AND SCHNEEBERGER EE. Intraepithelial airway dendritic cells: a distinct subset of pulmonary dendritic cells obtained by microdissection. J Exp Med 175: 797–807 1992.

141. HOLT PG. Macrophage: dendritic cell interaction in regulation of IgE response in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 23: 4–6, 1993.

142. HOLT PG, HAINING S, NELSON DJ, AND SEDGWICK JD. Origin and steady-state turnover of class II MHC-bearing dendritic cells in the epithelium of the conducting airways. J Immunol 153: 256–261, 1994.

202. LIPSCOMB MF, BICE DE, LYONS CR, SCHUYLER MR, AND WILKES D. The regulation of pulmonary immunity. Adv Immunol 59: 369–455, 1995.

203. LIPSCOMB MF, POLLARD AM, AND YATES JL. A role for TGF-beta in the suppression by murine bronchoalveolar cells of lung dendritic cell initiated immune responses. Reg Immunol 5: 151–157, 1993.

233. MCWILLIAM AS, NELSON D, THOMAS JA, AND HOLT PG. Rapid dendritic cell recruitment is a hallmark of the acute inflammatory response at mucosal surfaces. J Exp Med 179: 1331–1336, 1994.

334. STUMBLES PA, THOMAS JA, PIMM CL, LEE PT, VENAILLE TJ, PROKSCH S, AND HOLT PG. Resting respiratory tract dendritic cells preferentially stimulate T helper cell type 2 (Th2) responses and require obligatory cytokine signals for induction of Th1 immunity. J Exp Med 188: 2019–2031, 1998.

336. SUDA T, MCCARTHY K, VU Q, MCCORMACK J, AND SCHNEEBERGER EE. Dendritic cell precursors are enriched in the vascular compartment of the lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 19: 728–737, 1998.

Anmerkungen

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