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Study of the influence of nanoparticles on the performance and the properties of polyamide 6

von Dr. Mohammad Reza Sarbandi

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[1.] Mrs/Fragment 001 04 - Diskussion
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BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Mrs, Poole and Owens 2003, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Klgn
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In recent years, nanotechnology has become one of the most important and exciting forefront fields in Physics, Chemistry, Engineering and Biology. It shows great promise for providing us in the near future with many breakthroughs that will change the direction of technological advances in a wide range of applications.

The current widespread interest in nanotechnology dates back to the years 1996 to 1998 when a panel under the auspices of the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC), funded by the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies, undertook a worldwide study of research and development in the area of nanotechnology, with the purpose of assessing its potential for technological innovation [1].


[1] C. P. Poole, Jr., Frank J. Owens, Introduction to nanotechnology, John Wilez & Sons,Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey (2003)

In recent years nanotechnology has become one of the most important and exciting forefront fields in Physics, Chemistry, Engineering and Biology. It shows great promise for providing us in the near future with many breakthroughs that will change the direction of technological advances in a wide range of applications. [...]

The current widespread interest in nanotechnology dates back to the years 1996 to 1998 when a panel under the auspices of the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC), funded by the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies, undertook a world-wide study of research and development in the area of nanotechnology, with the purpose of assessing its potential for technological innovation.

Anmerkungen

_

Sichter
(Klgn), SleepyHollow02

[2.] Mrs/Fragment 001 13 - Diskussion
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Fragment, Gesichtet, Monserrat De La Luz Garcia Curiel 2004, Mrs, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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However, it is during the past decade that nanotechnology went through a variety of disciplines. From chemistry to biology, from materials science to electrical engineering, scientists are creating the tools and developing the expertise to bring nanotechnology out of the research labs and into the market place. Nanocomposite materials, when using organic polymer and inorganic fillers, represent a merger between traditional organic and inorganic materials, resulting in compositions that are truly hybrid. Nature has created many (composite) materials, such as diatoms, radiolarian and bone [2], from which scientists can learn. Organic-inorganic composites with nanoscale dimensions are of growing interest because of their unique properties, and numerous potential applications such as enhancement of conductivity, toughness , optical activity [3], catalytic activity [4], chemical selectivity [5,6] etc. In these materials, inorganic and organic components are mixed or hybridized at nanometer scale with virtually any composition leading to the formation of hybrid/nanocomposite materials. Ceramics are generally known for their hardness and brittleness, along with their resistance to high temperatures and severe physical/chemical environments. In addition, many inorganic materials such as silica glass have excellent optical properties such as transparency [7]. For most applications, the brittleness (lack of impact strength) is the major, sometimes fatal, deficiency of ceramics. On the other hand, organic polymers are usually noted for their low density and high toughness. (i.e. high impact [strength), However, lack of hardness is one of the most significant flaws of polymers in many applications.]

[2] D.B. Porter, Conference Proceedings from Organic-Inorganic hybrids conference Guildford, U.K. June (2000).

[3] J.G. Winiarz, L.M. Zhang, M. Lal, Friend, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 121, 5287 (1999).

[4] S.N. Sidorov, et al. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 123, 10502 (2001).

[5] T.C. Merkel, B.D. Freeman, R.J. Spontak, American Journal of Science 296, 519 (2002).

[6] C. Joly, M. Smaihi, L. Porcar, Chemistry of Materials, 11, 2331 (1999).

[7] G. Wypych, Handbook of fillers 2nd Ed. New York (1999).

However, it is during the past decade that nanotechnology went through a variety of disciplines. From chemistry to biology, from materials science to electrical engineering, scientists are creating the tools and developing the expertise to bring nanotechnology out of the research labs and into the market place. Nanostructured composite materials, when using organic polymer and inorganic fillers, represent a merger between traditional organic and inorganic materials, resulting in compositions that are truly hybrid. Nature has created many (composite) materials, such as diatoms, radiolarian [2] and bone [3], from which scientists can learn (Fig. 1). Organic-inorganic composites with nanoscale dimensions are of growing interest because of their unique properties, and numerous potential applications such as enhancement of conductivity [4,5], toughness [6], optical activity [7,8], catalytic activity [9], chemical selectivity [10,11] etc. In these materials, inorganic and organic components are mixed or hybridised at nanometer scale with virtually any composition leading to the formation of hybrid/nanocomposite materials [12-22]. [...].

Ceramics are generally known for their hardness and brittleness, along with their resistance to high temperatures and severe physical/chemical environments [23, 24]. In addition, many inorganic materials such as silica glass have excellent optical properties such as transparency [25]. For most applications, the brittleness (lack of impact strength) is the major, sometimes fatal, deficiency of ceramics [23]. On the other hand, organic polymers are usually noted for their low density and high toughness. (i.e., high impact strength).


[2] Volkmer, D. Chemie in unserer Zeit 33, 6 (1999).

[3] Porter, D.B. Conference Proceedings from Organic-Inorganic hybrids conference Guildford, U.K. June (2000).

[4] Coronado, E., Galan-Mascaros, J.R., Gomez-Garcia, C.J. and Laukhin, V., Nature 408, 447 (2000).

[5] Croce, F., Appetecchi, G.B., Persi, L. and Scrosati, B. Nature 394, 456 (1998).

[6] Pinnavaia, T.J. Science 220, 365 (1983).

[7] Wang, Y. and Herron, N. Science 273, 632 (1996).

[8] Winiarz, J.G., Zhang, L.M., Lal, M., Friend, C.S. and Prasad, P.N. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5287 (1999).

[9] Sidorov, S.N. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10502 (2001).

[10] Merkel, T.C. Freeman, B.D., Spontak, R.J., He, Z., Pinnau, I., Meakin, P. and Hill, A.J. Science 296, 519 (2002).

[11] Joly, C., Smaihi, M., Porcar L. and Noble, R.D. Chem. Mater. 11, 2331 (1999).

[12] Hajji, P., David, L., Gerard, J.F., Pascault, J.P. and Vigier, G. J. Polym. Sci. 37, 3172 (1999).

[13] Sanchez, C., Ribot, F. and Lebeau, B. J. Mater. Chem. 9, 35 (1999). Sanchez, C., LeBeau, B.and Ribot, F. J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech 19, 31 (2000).

[14] Pomogailo, A. D. Russ. Chem. Rev. 69, 53 (2000).

[15] Hajji, P., David, L., Gerard, J.F, Kaddami, H., Pascault, J.P. and Vigier, G. Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 576, 357 (1999).

[16] Novak, B.M. Adv. Mater. 5, 422 (1993).

[17] Lichtenha, J.D., Schwab, J.J. and Reinerth, W.A. Chem. Innovation 31, 3 (2001).

[18] Sanchez, C. and Ribot, F. New J. Chem. 18, 1007 (1994).

[19] Ellsworth, M.W. and Gin, D.L. Polymer News 24, 331 (1999).

[20] Kwiatkowski, K. C. and Lukehart, C. M. in Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology, Volume 1: Synthesis and Processing, Nalwa, H. S. Ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA (2000).

[21] Schubert, U., Hüsing, N. and Lorenz, A. Chem. Mater. 7, 2010 (1995).

[22] Morikawa, A., Iyoku, Y., Kakimoto, M. and Imai, Y. J. Mater. Chem. 2, 679 (1992).

[23] Reed, J.S. Principles of Ceramics Processing 2nd Ed. (1995).

[24] Richerson, D.W. Modern Ceramic Engineering 2nd Ed. (1992).

[25] Wypych G. Handbook of fillers 2nd Ed. New York (1999).

Anmerkungen

No source is given.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02), WiseWoman


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