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Study of the influence of nanoparticles on the performance and the properties of polyamide 6

von Dr. Mohammad Reza Sarbandi

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[1.] Mrs/Fragment 035 02 - Diskussion
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Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Mrs, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Wikipedia Silicon dioxide 2011

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Quelle: Wikipedia Silicon dioxide 2011
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3.4.2. Chemistry of silica

Silicon dioxide is formed when silicon is exposed to oxygen (or air). A very shallow layer (approximately 1 nm or 10 Å) of so-called native oxide is formed on the surface when silicon is exposed to air under ambient conditions. Higher temperatures and alternative environments are used to grow well-controlled layers of silicon dioxide on silicon, for example at temperatures between 600 and 1200 °C, using so-called dry or wet oxidation with O2 or H2O, respectively [119]. The depth of the layer of silicon replaced by the dioxide is 44% of the depth of the silicon dioxide layer produced [119].

Alternative methods used to deposit a layer of SiO2 include [120]

  • Low temperature oxidation (400–450 °C) of silane

SiH4 + 2 O2 → SiO2 + 2 H2O.

  • Decomposition of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) at 680–730 °C

Si(OC2H5)4 → SiO2 + 2 H2O + 4 C2H4.

  • Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using TEOS at about 400 °C

Si(OC2H5)4 + 12 O2 → SiO2 + 10 H2O + 8 CO2.

  • polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) at below 100 °C using amino acid as catalyst.[121]

[119] L. Sunggyu, Encyclopedia of chemical processing. CRC Press. (2006)

[120] R. Doering, Y. Nishi (2007). Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technolog, Marcel Dekker, New York

[121] A.B.D. Nandiyanto; S.-G Kim; F. Iskandar; and K. Okuyama (2009), Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 120 (3): 447–453

Chemistry

Silicon dioxide is formed when silicon is exposed to oxygen (or air). A very shallow layer (approximately 1 nm or 10 Å) of so-called native oxide is formed on the surface when silicon is exposed to air under ambient conditions. Higher temperatures and alternative environments are used to grow well-controlled layers of silicon dioxide on silicon, for example at temperatures between 600 and 1200 °C, using so-called dry or wet oxidation with O2 or H2O, respectively.[28] The depth of the layer of silicon replaced by the dioxide is 44% of the depth of the silicon dioxide layer produced.[28]

Alternative methods used to deposit a layer of SiO2 include[29]

  • Low temperature oxidation (400–450 °C) of silane SiH4 + 2 O2 → SiO2 + 2 H2O.
  • Decomposition of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) at 680–730 °C Si(OC2H5)4 → SiO2 + 2 H2O + 4 C2H4.
  • Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using TEOS at about 400 °C Si(OC2H5)4 + 12 O2 → SiO2 + 10 H2O + 8 CO2.
  • Polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) at below 100 °C using amino acid as catalyst.[30]

[28] Sunggyu Lee (2006). Encyclopedia of chemical processing. CRC Press. ISBN 0824755634.

[29] Robert Doering, Yoshio Nishi (2007). Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology. CRC Press. ISBN 1574446754.

[30] A.B.D. Nandiyanto; S.-G Kim; F. Iskandar; and K. Okuyama (2009). "Synthesis of Silica Nanoparticles with Nanometer-Size Controllable Mesopores and Outer Diameters". Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 120 (3): 447–453. doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2008.12.019. Innovation, Its Context and Tradition".

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned. The references to the literature have also been taken from it.

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(SleepyHollow02), Hindemith

[2.] Mrs/Fragment 035 18 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2015-05-16 20:21:08 WiseWoman
Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Mrs, Ranjan 2008, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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3.4.3. Silica nanoparticles

Among the numerous inorganic/organic hybrid materials, silica-polymer hybrid materials are one of the most commonly reported in the literature. This may be attributed to their wide use and the ease of particle synthesis. Silica nanoparticles have been used as fillers in the manufacture of paints, rubber products, and plastic binders [122]. Stöber and co-workers [123] reported a simple synthesis of monodisperse spherical silica particles.


[112] H. Hommel, A. Touhami, A.P. Legrand, Makromol. Chem. 1993, 194 879

[122] N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, (1984), Chemistry of the Elements, Oxford: Pergamon, pp. 393–99

[123] W. Stöber, A. Fink, E.J. Bohn, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1968, 26, 62.

2.1. Silica nanoparticle

Among the numerous inorganic/organic hybrid materials, silica-polymer hybrid materials are one of the most commonly reported in the literature. This may be attributed to their wide use and the ease of particle synthesis. Silica nanoparticles have been used as fillers in the manufacture of paints, rubber products, and plastic binders.25 [...]

[...] Stöber and co-workers32 reported a simple synthesis of monodisperse spherical silica particles.


25. Hommel, H.; Touhami,A.; Legrand, A. P. Makromol. Chem. 1993, 194 879.

32. Stöber, W.; Fink, A.; Bohn, E. J. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1968, 26, 62.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned here.

Possibly the reference "[122]" is a typo and should read "[112]."

Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman


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