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Study of the influence of nanoparticles on the performance and the properties of polyamide 6

von Dr. Mohammad Reza Sarbandi

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[1.] Mrs/Fragment 135 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2015-03-22 13:40:00 WiseWoman
BauernOpfer, Fornes 2003, Fragment, Gesichtet, Mrs, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 135, Zeilen: 1-3, 4-14 (complete, without figure)
Quelle: Fornes 2003
Seite(n): 265, 266, 267, Zeilen: 265: 12ff; 266: 1ff; 267: 5ff
Numerous studies have shown that the processing history of the polymer, e.g. melting, mixing, cooling, pelletizing, etc. is often not fully erased when the polymer is annealed at high melt temperatures [289,–320-325].

[Figure 8.12]

Figure 8.12 Crystalline temperature of virgin PA6 (1) and pure extruded PA6 (2). Faster crystallization may arise from increased nucleation due to the presence of impurities incorporated in the matrix during processing.

Aharoni [173] reports that any shearing imposed on the polymer during melt processing may facilitate the production of aligned arrays of bridged H-bonded sections that act as stable nuclei, capable of remaining intact in the melt state for long periods of time. These arrays ultimately act as crystallization sites upon cooling from the melt. Indeed, Khanna et al. [321] showed that extruded polyamide 6 leads to faster crystallization than virgin polyamide 6 under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The temperature of melting and the length of time held in the molten state will also determine the amount of stable nuclei remaining prior to recrystallization; this issue has been the topic of many investigations [325-330]. The above demonstrates that processing alone significantly affects the crystallization behavior of polyamide 6; therefore, for proper comparison between pure polyamide 6 and the nanocomposites, the 0 wt. % SiO2 data presented in the remaining plots represent the extruded version of polyamide 6.


[173] S.M: Aharoni, n-Polyamides, their synthesis, structure, and properties. Chichester; New York: Wiley; 1997.

[289] T.D.Fornes, D.R.Paul, Polymer 44 (2003) pp. 3945-3961

[320] Y.P. Khanna, R. Kumar, A.C. Reimschuessel, Polym Eng Sci 1988; 28(24):1607–11.

[321] Y.P. Khanna, A.C. Reimschuessel, A. Banerjie, Polym Eng Sci 1988; 28(24):1600–6.

[322] Y.P. Khanna, R. Kumar, A.C. Reimschuessel, Polym Eng Sci 1988; 28(24):1612–5.

[323] Y.P. Khanna, A.C. Reimschuessel, J Appl Polym Sci 1988; 35(8): 2259–68.

[324] Y.P. Khanna, Polym Eng Sci 1990; 30(24):1615–9.

[325] N. Avramova, Polym Polym Compos 1993; 1(4):261–74.

[326] JH. Magill, Polymer 1962; 3(No. 1):43–51.

[327] E. Turska, S. Gogolewski, Polymer 1971;12(10):616–28.

[328] E. Turska, S. Goglewski, J Appl Polym Sci 1975;19(3):637–44.

[329] N. Avramova, S. Fakirov, I. Avramov, J Polym Sci, Polym Phys 1984; 22(2):311–3.

[330] N. Avramova, S. Fakirov, J Polym Sci, Polym Phys 1986; 24(4):761–8.

Faster crystallization may arise from increased nucleation due to the presence of impurities incorporated in the matrix during processing. [...] Numerous studies have shown that the processing history of the polymer, e.g., melting, mixing, cooling, pelletizing, etc., are often not fully erased when the polymer is annealed at high melt temperatures [6, 58-63]. Aharoni reports that any shearing imposed on the polymer during melt processing may facilitate the production of aligned arrays of H-bonded sections that act as stable

[page 266]

nuclei, capable of remaining intact in the melt state for long periods of time [6]. These arrays ultimately act as crystallization sites upon cooling from the melt. Indeed, Khanna et al. showed that extruded nylon 6 leads to faster crystallization than virgin nylon 6 under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions [59]. The temperature of melting and the length of time held in the molten state will also determine the amount of stable nuclei remaining prior to recrystallization; this issue has been the topic of many investigations [63-68].

[page 267]

The above demonstrates that processing alone significantly affects the crystallization behavior of nylon 6; therefore, for proper comparison between pure nylon 6 and the nanocomposites, the 0 wt% MMT data presented in the remaining plots represent the extruded version of nylon 6.


6. Aharoni, SM, n-Nylons, their synthesis, structure, and properties. New York: J. Wiley & Sons. 1997.

58. Khanna, YP, Kumar, R, Reimschuessel, AC. Polym Engng Sci 1988;28(24): 1607-11.

59. Khanna, YP, Reimschuessel, AC, Banerjie, A, Altman, C. Polym Engng Sci 1988;28(24): 1600-6.

60. Khanna, YP, Kumar, R, Reimschuessel, AC. Polym Eng Sci 1988;28(24): 1612-5.

61. Khanna, YP, Reimschuessel, AC. J Appl Polym Sci 1988;35(8): 2259-68.

62. Khanna, YP. Polym Engng Sci 1990;30(24): 1615-9.

63. Avramova, N. Polymers & Polymer Composites 1993;1(4): 261-74.

64. Magill, JH. Polymer 1962;3(No. 1): 43-51.

65. Turska, E, Gogolewski, S. Polymer 1971;12(10): 616-28.

66. Turska, E, Goglewski, S. J Appl Polym Sci 1975;19(3): 637-44.

67. Avramova, N, Fakirov, S, Avramov, I. J Polym Sci, Part B 1984;22(2): 311-3.

68. Avramova, N, Fakirov, S. Journal of Polymer Science, Part B 1986;24(4): 761-8.

Anmerkungen

A source is not mentioned.

The description from Fornes' thesis is also to be found at Fornes, T.D. & Paul, D. R. (2003). Crystallization behavior of nylon 6 nanocomposites. In Polymer 44, pp. 3945–3961. The figures referred to are not the same. This reference is given as number 289 by Mrs and referenced here, but it would only cover the sentence before the reference, not the entire page including all referenced work. Thus, this fragment is marked as a "BauernOpfer" (pawn sacrifice).

Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman


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