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FindingsBearbeiten

  • Problematic text parallels can be found in the following chapters (state of analysis: 18 May 2015):
  • 1.GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
  • 1.1. Introduction (p. 1-2): pages 1, 2 – [completely]
  • 1.2. Nanotechnology (p. 2-4): pages 2, 3, 4
  • 1.3. Polymer Nanocomposite (p. 4): page 4
  • 2. HYBRID ORGANIC - INORGANIC NANOCOMPOSITES
  • 2.1. Introduction (p. 9): page 9
  • 2.2. Polymer matrices (p. 10): page 10
  • 2.2.1. Thermoplastic (p. 10): page 10 – [completely]
  • 2.2.1.1. PA66/ SIO2 nanocomposite (p. 10-11): page 10
  • 2.2.1.3. PEN/ SIO2 nanocomposite (p. 11-12): pages 11, 12 – [completely]
  • 2.2.1.4. PE / SIO2 nanocomposite (p. 12): page 12 – [completely]
  • 2.2.1.5. PP / SIO2 nanocomposite (p. 12-13): pages 12, 13 – [almost completely]
  • 2.2.1.6. PTT/ SIO2 nanocomposite (p. 13): page 13 – [completely]
  • 2.2.2. Thermosets (p. 13-14): pages 13, 14 – [almost completely]
  • 2.2.3. Elastomers (p. 14): page 14 – [completely]
  • 2.2.4. Natural and biodegradable polymers (p. 14): page 14 – [completely]
  • 2.3. Polyamide (p. 15): page 15 – [almost completely]
  • 2.4. Nanoparticle based nanocomposite (p. 24): page 24
  • 2.4.2. Silica (p. 25): page 25
  • 2.5. Organic-inorganic nanocomposite (p. 26): page 26
  • 2.5.1. Melt intercalation (p. 26): page 26
  • 2.5.3. in-situ polymerization (p. 27-28): page 27
  • 2.6. Polyamide 6/SiO2 nanocomposite and nanocomposite fiber (p. 28-29): page 29
  • 3. STRUCTURES AND PROPERTIES OF NANOPARTICLE
  • 3.1. Introduction (p. 30): page 30
  • 3.4. Silicium dioxide (p. 31-33): page 33
  • 3.4.1. Crystal structure of silica (p. 33-34): pages 33, 34 – [completely]
  • 3.4.2. Chemistry of silica (p. 35): page 35 – [completely (literally)]
  • 3.4.3. Silica nanoparticles (p. 35-40): pages 35, 36, 37, 38, 39
  • 3.5. Aluminum oxide (p. 41-42): page 42
  • 3.6. Cerium oxide (p. 42): page 42
  • 4. PHYSICAL STRUCTURE AND POLYMORPHISM OF POLYAMIDE 6 NANOCOMPOSITES
  • 4.5. Polymorphic Transformations in nanocomposite (p. 47-50): pages 48, 49, 50
  • 4.5.1. Effect of particle concentration (p. 51): page 51 – [completely (without Fig. 4.5)]
  • 4.5.4. Effect of preparation method (p. 54): page 54 – [completely]
  • 5. CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES APPLICABLE TO NANOCOMPOSITE
  • 5.1 Introduction (p. 58): page 58
  • 5.3. Microscopic techniques [236-238] (p. 61): page 61
  • 5.3.1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (p. 61-62): pages 61, 62 – [almost completely]
  • 5.3.2. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (p. 62): page 62
  • 5.4. Spectroscopic technique [240, 241] (p. 63-64): page 63
  • 5.5. Thermal characterization [242-244] (p. 64): page 64 – [completely]
  • 5.5.1. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) (p. 64-66): pages 64, 65, 66
  • 5.6. Molecule weight determination [245-248] (p. 67-68): page 67
  • 5.6.2. Viscosity (p. 70-73): pages 70, 71, 72, 73 – [almost completely]
  • 5.6.3. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) (p. 74): page 74 – [completely]
  • 5.7. Tensile properties (p. 76): page 75 – [completely]
  • 6. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZSATION OF PA6/SIO2 NANOCOMPOSITES BY MELT INTERCALATION METHOD
  • 6.4. Results and discussion
  • 6.4.1. Melt viscosity and processability (p. 80-82): page 81
  • 6.4.2. Structure and crystallization Behavior of PA6/SiO2 Nanocomposites fibers (p. 82-84): page 82
  • 7. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PA6/ SIO2 NANOCOMPOSITES BY SOLUTION INTERCALATION METHOD
  • 7.4. Results and discussion
  • 7.4.1. Differential Scanning Calorimetry of PA6/SiO2 nanocomposite fibers (p. 102-107): page 102
  • 8. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PA6/ SIO2 NANOCOMPOSITES BY IN-SITU POLYMERIZATION METHOD
  • 8.4. Results and discussion
  • 8.4.1. Part one: nanocomposite (granule form)
  • 8.4.1.1. Molecular weight and Amino end Group of Polyamide 6/SiO2 nanocomposites (p. 119-122): page 119
  • 8.4.1.3. Differential Scanning Calorimetry of polyamide6/SiO2 nanocomposites (p. 124-127): page 125
  • 8.4.2. Results and discussion Part 2: nanocomposite fiber
  • 8.4.2.1. FTIR characterization of nanocomposite fibers (p. 132-133): pages 132, 133
  • 8.4.2.2. Differential Scanning Calorimetry of polyamide6/SiO2 nanocomposites fibers (p. 133-137): pages 134, 135
  • 8.4.2.5. SEM observation of polyamide6/SiO2 nanocomposites fibers (p. 145-146): page 145
  • 9. GENERAL CONCLUSION (p. 147-149): page 148.

Prominent sourcesBearbeiten

  • Wikipedia - Silicon dioxide (2011): A long passage including two figures has been taken from the Wikipedia, which is not mentioned anywhere in the thesis.
  • Bhattacharya et al. (2008): A text book is the source of substantial copying. Sometimes it is mentioned in the text, but often it is not.
  • Fornes (2003), García (2004): Two doctoral theses are the source of very substantial text copying. None is mentioned anywhere in the thesis discussed.

Prominent fragmentsBearbeiten

  • Fragment 133 01: Measurements copied from a source are presented as own measurements, and the description of the measurements is adapted to suggest that a slightly different material has been analysed.
  • Fragment 058 04: A portion of a Call for Papers is included verbatim without reference.
  • Fragment 014 01: A whole page is taken from an unnamed source. Also most references to the literature have been copied from that source. Similarly Fragment 049 01.
  • Fragment 081 01: An erroneous reference is copied from the source.

Other observationsBearbeiten

  • The author has exchanged the term "nylon 6" in the sources by a synonym, "polyamide 6", for example in Fragment 048 26. This appears to have been done with a search and replace function on the entire document, as the term "nylon" is also replaced in the titles given in the references, for example in
    [142] M.I. Kohan, Polyamide [sic] plastics handbook, carl Hanser verlag, munich 1995 → see [1] or
    [173] S.M: Aharoni, n-Polyamides [sic], their synthesis, structure, and properties. Chichester; New York: Wiley; 1997 → see [2].
  • Most sources listed in the bibliography are listed without title, which makes it inconvenient to locate them.

StatisticsBearbeiten

  • Currently there are 74 reviewed fragments documented that are considered to be violations of citation rules. For 56 of them there is no reference given to the source used („Verschleierungen“ and „Komplettplagiate“). For 18 fragments the source is given, but the extent of the used text is not made clear („Bauernopfer“).
  • The publication has 151 pages that have been analyzed. On a total of 56 of these pages violations of citation rules have been documented. This represents a percentage of 37.1%. The 151 analyzed pages break down with respect to the amount of text parallels encountered as follows:
Percentage text parallels Number of pages
No text parallels documented 95
0%-50% text parallels 25
50%-75% text parallels 13
75%-100% text parallels 18
From these statistics an extrapolation of the amount of text of the publication under investigation that has been documented as problematic can be estimated (conservatively) as about 16% of the main part of the publication.


IllustrationBearbeiten

The following chart illustrates the amount and the distribution of the text parallel findings. The colours show the type of plagiarism diagnosed:

  • grau="Komplettplagiat" (copy & paste): the source of the text parallel is not given, the copy is verbatim.
  • rot="Verschleierung" (disguised plagiarism): the source of the text parallel is not given, the copied text will be somewhat modified.
  • gelb="Bauernopfer" (pawn sacrifice): the source of the text parallel is mentioned, but the extent and/or the closeness of the copy to the source is not made clear by the reference.

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