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SleepyHollow02
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 1, Zeilen: 13-29
Quelle: Monserrat De La Luz Garcia Curiel 2004
Seite(n): 1, Zeilen: 4 ff.
However, it is during the past decade that nanotechnology went through a variety of disciplines. From chemistry to biology, from materials science to electrical engineering, scientists are creating the tools and developing the expertise to bring nanotechnology out of the research labs and into the market place. Nanocomposite materials, when using organic polymer and inorganic fillers, represent a merger between traditional organic and inorganic materials, resulting in compositions that are truly hybrid. Nature has created many (composite) materials, such as diatoms, radiolarian and bone [2], from which scientists can learn. Organic-inorganic composites with nanoscale dimensions are of growing interest because of their unique properties, and numerous potential applications such as enhancement of conductivity, toughness , optical activity [3], catalytic activity [4], chemical selectivity [5,6] etc. In these materials, inorganic and organic components are mixed or hybridized at nanometer scale with virtually any composition leading to the formation of hybrid/nanocomposite materials. Ceramics are generally known for their hardness and brittleness, along with their resistance to high temperatures and severe physical/chemical environments. In addition, many inorganic materials such as silica glass have excellent optical properties such as transparency [7]. For most applications, the brittleness (lack of impact strength) is the major, sometimes fatal, deficiency of ceramics. On the other hand, organic polymers are usually noted for their low density and high toughness. (i.e. high impact [strength), However, lack of hardness is one of the most significant flaws of polymers in many applications.]

[2] D.B. Porter, Conference Proceedings from Organic-Inorganic hybrids conference Guildford, U.K. June (2000).

[3] J.G. Winiarz, L.M. Zhang, M. Lal, Friend, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 121, 5287 (1999).

[4] S.N. Sidorov, et al. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 123, 10502 (2001).

[5] T.C. Merkel, B.D. Freeman, R.J. Spontak, American Journal of Science 296, 519 (2002).

[6] C. Joly, M. Smaihi, L. Porcar, Chemistry of Materials, 11, 2331 (1999).

[7] G. Wypych, Handbook of fillers 2nd Ed. New York (1999).

However, it is during the past decade that nanotechnology went through a variety of disciplines. From chemistry to biology, from materials science to electrical engineering, scientists are creating the tools and developing the expertise to bring nanotechnology out of the research labs and into the market place. Nanostructured composite materials, when using organic polymer and inorganic fillers, represent a merger between traditional organic and inorganic materials, resulting in compositions that are truly hybrid. Nature has created many (composite) materials, such as diatoms, radiolarian [2] and bone [3], from which scientists can learn (Fig. 1). Organic-inorganic composites with nanoscale dimensions are of growing interest because of their unique properties, and numerous potential applications such as enhancement of conductivity [4,5], toughness [6], optical activity [7,8], catalytic activity [9], chemical selectivity [10,11] etc. In these materials, inorganic and organic components are mixed or hybridised at nanometer scale with virtually any composition leading to the formation of hybrid/nanocomposite materials [12-22]. [...].

Ceramics are generally known for their hardness and brittleness, along with their resistance to high temperatures and severe physical/chemical environments [23, 24]. In addition, many inorganic materials such as silica glass have excellent optical properties such as transparency [25]. For most applications, the brittleness (lack of impact strength) is the major, sometimes fatal, deficiency of ceramics [23]. On the other hand, organic polymers are usually noted for their low density and high toughness. (i.e., high impact strength).


[2] Volkmer, D. Chemie in unserer Zeit 33, 6 (1999).

[3] Porter, D.B. Conference Proceedings from Organic-Inorganic hybrids conference Guildford, U.K. June (2000).

[4] Coronado, E., Galan-Mascaros, J.R., Gomez-Garcia, C.J. and Laukhin, V., Nature 408, 447 (2000).

[5] Croce, F., Appetecchi, G.B., Persi, L. and Scrosati, B. Nature 394, 456 (1998).

[6] Pinnavaia, T.J. Science 220, 365 (1983).

[7] Wang, Y. and Herron, N. Science 273, 632 (1996).

[8] Winiarz, J.G., Zhang, L.M., Lal, M., Friend, C.S. and Prasad, P.N. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 5287 (1999).

[9] Sidorov, S.N. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 10502 (2001).

[10] Merkel, T.C. Freeman, B.D., Spontak, R.J., He, Z., Pinnau, I., Meakin, P. and Hill, A.J. Science 296, 519 (2002).

[11] Joly, C., Smaihi, M., Porcar L. and Noble, R.D. Chem. Mater. 11, 2331 (1999).

[12] Hajji, P., David, L., Gerard, J.F., Pascault, J.P. and Vigier, G. J. Polym. Sci. 37, 3172 (1999).

[13] Sanchez, C., Ribot, F. and Lebeau, B. J. Mater. Chem. 9, 35 (1999). Sanchez, C., LeBeau, B.and Ribot, F. J. Sol-Gel Sci. Tech 19, 31 (2000).

[14] Pomogailo, A. D. Russ. Chem. Rev. 69, 53 (2000).

[15] Hajji, P., David, L., Gerard, J.F, Kaddami, H., Pascault, J.P. and Vigier, G. Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 576, 357 (1999).

[16] Novak, B.M. Adv. Mater. 5, 422 (1993).

[17] Lichtenha, J.D., Schwab, J.J. and Reinerth, W.A. Chem. Innovation 31, 3 (2001).

[18] Sanchez, C. and Ribot, F. New J. Chem. 18, 1007 (1994).

[19] Ellsworth, M.W. and Gin, D.L. Polymer News 24, 331 (1999).

[20] Kwiatkowski, K. C. and Lukehart, C. M. in Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology, Volume 1: Synthesis and Processing, Nalwa, H. S. Ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA (2000).

[21] Schubert, U., Hüsing, N. and Lorenz, A. Chem. Mater. 7, 2010 (1995).

[22] Morikawa, A., Iyoku, Y., Kakimoto, M. and Imai, Y. J. Mater. Chem. 2, 679 (1992).

[23] Reed, J.S. Principles of Ceramics Processing 2nd Ed. (1995).

[24] Richerson, D.W. Modern Ceramic Engineering 2nd Ed. (1992).

[25] Wypych G. Handbook of fillers 2nd Ed. New York (1999).

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