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The Meaning of Large Companies‘ Corporate Social Responsibility for Enterprise Management, Economic Success and Social Balance in Globalising Europe

von Martin Schelberg, PhD

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[1.] Msc/Fragment 023 03 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-12-23 10:19:49 PlagProf:-)
Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Msc, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Wikipedia Social Market Economy 2007

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 23, Zeilen: 3-19
Quelle: Wikipedia Social Market Economy 2007
Seite(n): Internetquelle, Zeilen: -
The social market economy was the main economic model used in Western and Northern Europe during the Cold War era. It originated in West Germany, and it is known as Soziale

Marktwirtschaft in German. In West Germany, the social market model was created and implemented by the Christian Democrat Ludwig Erhard, Minister of Economics under Konrad Adenauer's chancellorship and German Chancellor in his own right from 1963 to 1966. While social market economies are often seen as the realization of ordoliberalism and do in fact chiefly stem from the theories of the ordoliberals, the systems actually put into effect in Europe after the Second World War were strongly influenced by social democracy and generally have a slight social-democratic bent. The social market economy seeks a middle path between socialism and capitalism (i.e. a mixed economy) and aims at maintaining a balance between a high rate of economic growth, low inflation, low levels of unemployment, good working conditions, social welfare, and public services, by using state intervention. Basically respecting the free market, the social market economy is opposed to both a planned economy and laissez-faire capitalism. Erhard once told Friedrich Hayek that the free market economy did not need to be made social but was social in its origin. In a social market economy, collective bargaining is often done on a national level not between one corporation and one union, but national employers' organizations and national trade unions.

The social market economy was the main economic model used in Western and Northern Europe during the Cold War era. It originated in West Germany, and it is known as Soziale Marktwirtschaft in German.

In West Germany, the social market model was created and implemented by the Christian Democrat Ludwig Erhard, Minister of Economics under Konrad Adenauer's chancellorship and German Chancellor in his own right from 1963 to 1966.

While social market economies are often seen as the realization of ordoliberalism and do in fact chiefly stem from the theories of the ordoliberals, the systems actually put into effect in Europe after the Second World War were strongly influenced by social democracy and generally have a slight social-democratic bent.

Model

The social market economy seeks a middle path between socialism and capitalism (i.e. a mixed economy) and aims at maintaining a balance between a high rate of economic growth, low inflation, low levels of unemployment, good working conditions, social welfare, and public services, by using state intervention.

Basically respecting the free market, the social market economy is opposed to both a planned economy and laissez-faire capitalism. Erhard once told Friedrich Hayek that the free market economy did not need to be made social but was social in its origin.[1]

In a social market economy, collective bargaining is often done on a national level not between one corporation and one union, but national employers' organizations and national trade unions.

Anmerkungen

Wikipedia is not mentioned in the thesis.

Sichter
(WiseWoman), PlagProf:-)

[2.] Msc/Fragment 023 20 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-12-23 10:32:01 PlagProf:-)
Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Msc, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Wikipedia Freiburg School 2007

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Seite: 23, Zeilen: 20-21
Quelle: Wikipedia Freiburg School 2007
Seite(n): Internetquelle, Zeilen: -
The Freiburg School is a school of economic thought founded in the 1930s at the University of Freiburg. It builds somewhat on the earlier historical school of economics. The Freiburg School is a school of economic thought founded in the 1930s at the University of Freiburg.

It builds somewhat on the earlier Historical school of economics.

Anmerkungen

Wikipedia is not mentioned in the thesis.

This short fragment connects two other instances of unattributed copy & paste from Wikipedia articles.

Sichter
(WiseWoman), PlagProf:-)

[3.] Msc/Fragment 023 22 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-12-23 10:33:32 PlagProf:-)
Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Msc, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Wikipedia Ordoliberalism 2007

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Seite: 23, Zeilen: 22-45
Quelle: Wikipedia Ordoliberalism 2007
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Ordoliberalism (also called German neoliberalism) is a school of liberalism emphasizing the need for the state to ensure that the free market produces results close to its theoretical potential (see allocative efficiency). The theory was developed by German economists and legal scholars such as Wilhelm Röpke (who spent the Nazi period in exile in Turkey), Walter Eucken, Franz Böhm and Hans Grossmann-Doerth from about 1930-1950; Ordoliberal ideals (with modifications) drove the creation of the post-World War II German social market economy and its attendant “Wirtschaftswunder”.

Ordoliberal theory holds that the state must create a proper legal environment for the economy and maintain a healthy level of competition through measures that adhere to market principles. The concern is that, if the state does not take active measures to foster competition, firms with monopoly or oligopoly power will emerge, which will not only subvert the advantages offered by the market economy, but also possibly undermine good government, since strong economic power can be transformed into political power. Quoting Stephen Padgett: "A central tenet of ordo-liberalism is a clearly defined division of labor in economic management, with specific responsibilities assigned to particular institutions. Monetary policy should be the responsibility of a central bank committed to monetary stability and low inflation, and insulated from political pressure by independent status. Fiscal policy - balancing tax revenue against government expenditure - is the domain of the government, whilst macro-economic policy is the preserve of employers and trade unions." The state should form an economical order instead of directing economical processes. Wilhelm Röpke considered Ordoliberalism to be "liberal conservatism" against capitalism. Alexander Rüstow also has criticized laissez-faire capitalism. The Ordoliberals thus separated themselves from classical liberals like Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek. For their political philosophy, Ordoliberals were influenced by Aristotle, Tocqueville, Hegel, Spengler and Karl Mannheim.

Ordoliberalism (also called German neoliberalism) is a school of liberalism emphasizing the need for the state to ensure that the free market produces results close to its theoretical potential (see allocative efficiency). The theory was developed by German economists and legal scholars such as Wilhelm Röpke (who spent the Nazi period in exile in Turkey), Walter Eucken, Franz Böhm and Hans Großmann-Doerth from about 1930-1950; Ordoliberal ideals (with modifications) drove the creation of the post-World War II German social market economy and its attendant Wirtschaftswunder.

Ordoliberal theory holds that the state must create a proper legal environment for the economy and maintain a healthy level of competition through measures that adhere to market principles.[1] The concern is that, if the state does not take active measures to foster competition, firms with monopoly (or oligopoly) power will emerge, which will not only subvert the advantages offered by the market economy, but also possibly undermine good government, since strong economic power can be transformed into political power. Quoting Stephen Padgett: "A central tenet of ordo-liberalism is a clearly defined division of labor in economic management, with specific responsibilities assigned to particular institutions. Monetary policy should be the responsibility of a central bank committed to monetary stability and low inflation, and insulated from political pressure by independent status. Fiscal policy- balancing tax revenue against government expenditure- is the domain of the government, whilst macro-economic policy is the preserve of employers and trade unions." The state should form an economical order instead of directing economical processes.

[...]

Wilhelm Röpke considered Ordoliberalism to be "liberal conservatism," against capitalism in his work Civitas Humana (A Humane Order of Society, 1944). Alexander Rüstow also has criticized laissez-faire capitalism in his work Das Versagen des Wirtschaftsliberalismus (The Failure of Economic Liberalism, 1950). The Ordoliberals thus separated themselves from other traditional liberals, the "paleoliberals," like Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek.

For their political philosophy, Ordoliberals were influenced by Aristotle, Tocqueville, Hegel, Spengler and Karl Mannheim.

Anmerkungen

Wikipedia is not mentioned in the thesis.

Sichter
(WiseWoman), PlagProf:-)

[4.] Msc/Fragment 023 46 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-12-23 10:22:20 PlagProf:-)
Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Msc, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Wikipedia Social Market Economy 2007

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 23, Zeilen: 46-47
Quelle: Wikipedia Social Market Economy 2007
Seite(n): Internetquelle, Zeilen: -
Following the fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, most centre right parties gradually moved towards the highly capitalist economic policies of neoliberalism, and a significant por[tion of the centre left made a similar move, developing the "Third Way". Nevertheless, a commitment to some form of social market economy was present in the European Union Constitution (now in limbo following the referendums in France and the Netherlands).] Following the fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, most centre right parties gradually moved towards the highly capitalist economic policies of neoliberalism, and a significant portion of the centre left made a similar move, developing the "Third Way". Nevertheless, a commitment to some form of social market economy was present in the European Union Constitution (now in limbo following the referendums in France and the Netherlands).
Anmerkungen

Wikipedia is not mentioned in the thesis.

Sichter
(WiseWoman), PlagProf:-)


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