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Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 65, Zeilen: 1-33
Quelle: Arquilla_Ronfeldt_2001
Seite(n): 69, 70, Zeilen: 14ff; 1ff
The Colombian cocaine trade can be seen as an example of directed network. Its core members at least came into being to carrying of cocaine to U.S. in the 1980s and early 1990s and directed the whole network to achieve the objective. Whereas, the heroin trade from Southeast Asia, in contrast, is far more of a business network, in which agents (we may call them brokers) play a critical role at almost every stage of the process. Herion [sic!] reaches the retail market by passing through a sequence of brokers/ agents and independent suppliers are responsible for moving it from manufacturers to agents. In practice, a directed network can be part of a larger business network, and it seems that with the demise of the large, vertically cohesive networks functioning out of Medellín and Cali, the Colombian cocaine trade has increasingly taken on this hybrid value.

Second, networks can range from small, inadequate relations at the local level to transnational provider networks responsible for moving both legal and illegal belongings across national borders. Membership can be determined by a particular characteristic, such as ethnicity, or can be relatively open. The networks are likely to be multi-ethnic when influential considerations balance the need to maintain a high degree of selectiveness.

Among the larger criminal networks, it is possible to identify both key individuals and key corporations or firms through which they operate. One of the best examples of a widespread transnational criminal network is that revolving around Semeon Mogilevich. Based in Hungary, Mogilevich is reputed to have close links with the Solntsevo criminal organization in Moscow, with prostitution activities in Frankfurt, with the Genovese family in New York, and with Russian criminals in Israel. For several years, Mogilevich operated in part through a company called Magnex YBM operating in the United States and Canada. The company was engaged in money laundering and stock frauds. It also had a network of companies in the Bahamas, the British Channel Islands, and the [Caymans.]

The Colombian cocaine trade in the 1980s and early 1990s was very much a directed network—at least at the core—which came into existence to transport cocaine to the United States. The heroin trade from Southeast Asia, in contrast, is far more of a transaction network, in which brokers play a critical role at almost every stage of the process. Producers supply heroin to independent distributors, and it is then passed along a chain of brokers until it reaches the retail market. In practice, of course, a directed network can be part of a larger transaction network, and it appears that with the demise of the large, vertically integrated networks operating out of Medellin and Cali, the Colombian cocaine trade has increasingly taken on this hybrid quality.

Second, networks can range from small, very limited associations at the local level to transnational supplier networks that move a variety of goods, either licit or illicit—or even both—across national borders. Membership can be determined by a particular characteristic, such as ethnicity, or can be relatively open. Supplier networks are likely to be multiethnic when instrumental considerations outweigh the desire or need to maintain a high degree of exclusiveness.

Among the larger criminal networks, it is possible to identify both key individuals and key companies or firms through which they operate. One of the best examples of an extensive transnational criminal network is that revolving around Semeon Mogilevich. Based in Hungary,

[Page 70]

Mogilevich is reputed to have close links with the Solntsevo criminal organization in Moscow, with prostitution activities in Frankfurt, with the Genovese family in New York, and with Russian criminals in Israel. For several years, Mogilevich operated in part through a company called Magnex YBM operating in the United States and Canada (where it was engaged in money laundering [...] and stock fraud) and also had a network of companies in the Bahamas, the British Channel Islands, and the Caymans.

Anmerkungen

Slight adaptations. The source is not referenced.

Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman

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