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Typus
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Hindemith
Gesichtet
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 73, Zeilen: 1-31
Quelle: Arquilla_Ronfeldt_2001
Seite(n): 72-73, Zeilen: 21ff, 1ff
Usually the originators of the criminal enterprise, the central members initiate specific criminal activities, arbitrate disputes, and provide direction. Their relationship is often supported by bonding mechanisms that help to create high degrees of trust and cohesion.

In many cases, bonding will be directly related to family or kinship: For example, many Italian Mafia groups are still organized along family lines, while Turkish drug trafficking and criminal organizations are often clan based. Other bonding mechanisms include ethnicity and common experience in which the participants develop a strong sense of trust and mutual reliance.

Membership in youth gangs or time spent together in prison can also provide critical bonding mechanisms. In the United States, the Mexican Mafia (which is not actually Mexican) started as a prison gang in Southern California but has developed much more extensively. Yet, it is the common experience that continues to provide the network core with the capacity to operate with confidence and believe that disloyalty or defection is very unlikely.

If network cores exhibit strong collective identities, cohesion does not necessarily enhance—and can actually reduce—the capacity to obtain information and “mobilize resources from the environment.” Indeed, recent trends in network analysis posit an inverse relationship, in general, between the density/intensity of the coupling of network ties on the one hand and their openness to the outside environment on the other (Grabher, G., Stark, D., 1997)

This explains the attraction of a two-tier structure in which the weaknesses of the central member in carrying out the functions of information acquisition are more than offset by the foot soldiers/ peripheries.

2.9.7 Network Peripheries

The peripheries feature less dense patterns of interaction and looser [relationships than the core.]

Usually the originators of the criminal enterprise, the core members initiate specific criminal activities, arbitrate disputes, and provide direction. Their relationship is often underpinned by bonding mechanisms that help to create high degrees of trust and cohesion.

In many cases, bonding will be directly related to family or kinship: Many Italian Mafia groups are still organized along family lines, while Turkish drug trafficking and criminal organizations are often clan based. Other bonding mechanisms include ethnicity and common experience in which the participants develop a strong sense of trust and mutual reliance.

Membership in youth gangs or time spent together in prison can also provide critical bonding mechanisms. In the United States, the Mexican Mafia (which is not actually Mexican) started as a prison gang in

[Page 73]

Southern California but has developed much more extensively. Yet, it is the common experience that continues to give the core of the network a capacity to operate with confidence that disloyalty or defection are unlikely.[FN 15]

If network cores exhibit strong collective identities, cohesion does not necessarily enhance—and can actually reduce—the capacity to obtain information and “mobilize resources from the environment.” Indeed,

recent trends in network analysis posit an inverse relationship, in general, between the density/intensity of the coupling of network ties on the one hand and their openness to the outside environment on the other.[FN 16]

This explains the attraction of a two-tier structure in which the weaknesses of the core in carrying out the functions of information acquisition are more than offset by the periphery.

Network Peripheries

This zone features less dense patterns of interaction and looser relationships than the core.


[FN 15] The analysis here and the discussion of bonding mechanisms rests heavily on Ianni, 1974, pp.282-293.

[FN 16] See David Stark and Gernot Grabher, “Organizing Diversity: Evolutionary Theory, Network Analysis, and Postsocialist Transformations,” in Stark and Grabher, eds., Restructuring Networks: Legacies, Linkages, and Localities in Postsocialism (New York and London: Oxford University Press, in press).

Anmerkungen

Very minor adaptations. The source is not given.

One literature reference has been removed, another reference for a quote has been taken from the source, and the period was omitted after the inserted reference.

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(Hindemith), WiseWoman

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