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Seite: 75, Zeilen: 7-25
|Quelle: Xu and Chen 2005a|
Seite(n): 102, Zeilen: left column 53 - right column 1-21
|First, incomplete, incorrect, or inconsistent data can create problems. Moreover, these characteristics of terrorist networks cause difficulties:
-Incompleteness. Criminal networks are clandestine networks that work in concealment and secrecy (Krebs, 2002). Criminals may reduce communications to avoid attracting attention of law enforcement agencies and their communications are concealed behind a number of illegal activities. Therefore, data about criminal networks is certainly treated as incomplete; that is, some existing links or nodes will be overlooked or unrecorded (Sparrow, M. K., 1991).
-Incorrectness. Many criminals hide their identity (provide incorrect information to the agencies) when they are captured and under investigation. Incorrect data regarding criminals’ identities, physical characteristics, and addresses may result either from accidental data entry errors or from intentional cheating by criminals.
-Inconsistency. Information about criminals, who have captured a number of times at number of places, may be entered in law [enforcement databases multiple times.]
|First, incomplete, incorrect, or inconsistent data can create problems. Moreover, these characteristics of criminal networks cause difficulties not common in other data mining applications:
• Incompleteness[EN 10]. Criminal networks are covert networks that operate in secrecy and stealth [EN 8]. Criminals may minimize interactions to avoid attracting police attention and their interactions are hidden behind various illicit activities. Thus, data about criminals and their interactions and associations is inevitably incomplete, causing missing nodes and links in networks [EN 10].
• Incorrectness. Incorrect data regarding criminals’ identities, physical characteristics, and addresses may result either from unintentional data entry errors or from intentional deception by criminals. Many criminals lie about their identity information when caught and investigated.
• Inconsistency. Information about a criminal who has multiple police contacts may be entered into law enforcement databases multiple times.
[EN 8] Krebs, V. E. Mapping networks of terrorist cells. Connections 24, 3 (2001), 43–52.
[EN 10] Sparrow, M.K. The application of network analysis to criminal intelligence: An assessment of the prospects. Social Networks 13 (1991), 251–274.
Starts out as "word-for-word paraphrasing" and becomes "word-for-word copying" (even more obvious on the next page). The source is not given
If indeed there is an article where "Most part of the contents of this subsection is already published in (Memon N., and Larsen H. L., 2006a).", as Nm claims in the footnote, one has to wonder about the refereeing process there, too.