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Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 76, Zeilen: 1-17, 20-25, 29-32
Quelle: Xu and Chen 2005a
Seite(n): 102, Zeilen: right column 19ff
[Information about criminals, who have captured a number of times at number of places, may be entered in law] enforcement databases multiple times. These records are not unsurprisingly consistent. It would be found very strange if multiple data records could make a single criminal appear to be different individuals. When apparently different individuals are included in a network under investigation, misleading information may be produced.

The literature study found that the problems particularly to criminal network analysis lie in data transformation, fuzzy boundaries, and network dynamics.

-Data Transformation. Network analysis requires that data be presented in a particular format, in which (network) members’ represent nodes, their communications are represented by links. Though, information about criminal relations is typically not precise in raw data and converting them to the required format can be known as laborious and time-consuming.

-Fuzzy boundaries. The boundaries of criminal networks are relatively confusing. [...] Therefore, it is found during the literature review that it can be very tough for an analyst to choose whom to include and whom to exclude from a network under investigation (Sparrow, M. K., 1991).

-Dynamic. Criminal networks are known as dynamic networks, that is, they usually to change over time. {The relationship between any two individuals binary nature, it means there is a relation or there is no relation, it may be weak or strong; rather it has a distribution over time, waxing and waning from one period to another. It is also noted that most of relations change in time.} Therefore, it is need of the time to design and develop new methods of data collection in order to capture the dynamics of criminal networks (Sparrow, M. K., 1991).

Information about a criminal who has multiple police contacts may be entered into law enforcement databases multiple times. These records are not necessarily consistent. Multiple data records could make a single criminal appear to be different individuals. When seemingly different individuals are included in a network under study, misleading information may result.

Problems specific to criminal network analysis lie in data transformation, fuzzy boundaries, and network dynamics:

Data transformation. Network analysis requires that data be presented in a specific format, in which network members are represented by nodes, and their associations or interactions are represented by links. However, information about criminal associations is usually not explicit in raw data. The task of extracting criminal associations from raw data and transforming them to the required format can be fairly labor-intensive and time-consuming.

• Fuzzy boundaries. Boundaries of criminal networks are likely to be ambiguous. It can be quite difficult for an analyst to decide whom to include and whom to exclude from a network under study [EN 10].

• Network dynamics. Criminal networks are not static, but are subject to changes over time. New data and even new methods of data collection may be required to capture the dynamics of criminal networks [EN 10].

Anmerkungen

Text between line 25 and line 29 (marked by {}) seems to be Nm's own. It is left as an example of Nm's style in comparison to the original own. (These lines are not counted).

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