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How Investigative Data Mining Can Help Intelligence Agencies to Discover Dependence of Nodes in Terrorist Networks

von Nasrullah Memon, David L. Hicks, Henrik Legind Larsen

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[1.] Nm2/Fragment 430 17 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-11 23:19:06 Schumann
Fragment, Gesichtet, Nm2, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Xu and Chen 2003

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 430, Zeilen: 17-27
Quelle: Xu and Chen 2003
Seite(n): 232, Zeilen: 21ff
1 Introduction

Terrorists seldom operate in a vacuum but interact with one another to carry out terrorist activities. To perform terrorist activities requires collaboration among terrorists. Relationships between individual terrorists are essential for the smooth operation of a terrorist organization, which can be viewed as a network consisting of nodes (for example terrorists, terrorist camps, supporting countries, etc.) and links (for example, communicates with, or trained at, etc.). In terrorist networks, there may exist some group or cell, within which members have close relationships. One group may also interact with other groups. For example, some key nodes (key players) may act as leaders to control activities of a group, while others may serve as gatekeepers to ensure smooth flow of information or illicit goods.

1 Introduction

Criminals seldom operate in a vacuum but interact with one another to carry out various illegal activities. In particular, organized crimes such as terrorism, drug trafficking, gang-related offenses, frauds, and armed robberies require collaboration among offenders. Relationships between individual offenders form the basis for organized crimes [18] and are essential for smooth operation of a criminal enterprise, which can be viewed as a network consisting of nodes (individual offenders) and links (relationships). In criminal networks, there may exist groups or teams, within which members have close relationships. One group also may interact with other groups to obtain or transfer illicit goods. Moreover, individuals play different roles in their groups. For example, some key members may act as leaders to control activities of a group. Some others may serve as gatekeepers to ensure smooth flow of information or illicit goods.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned, although the beginning of the introduction of the paper is only a version of the introduction of the source, adapted from criminal networks to terrorist networks.

Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman

[2.] Nm2/Fragment 430 28 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-11 22:42:00 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Katz et al 2004, Nm2, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 430, Zeilen: 28-36
Quelle: Katz et al 2004
Seite(n): 308, 309, Zeilen: 308: 23ff; 309: 1ff
In social network literature, researchers have examined a broad range of types of ties [1]. These include communication ties (such as who talks to whom or who gives information or advice to whom), formal ties (such as who reports to whom), affective ties (such as who likes whom, or who trust whom), material or work flow ties (such as who gives bomb making material or other resources to whom), proximity ties (who is spatially or electronically close to whom). Networks are typically multiplex, that is, actors share more than one type of tie. For example, two terrorists might have a formal tie (one is a foot-soldier or a newly recruited person in the terrorist cell and reports to the other, who is the cell leader) and an affective tie (they are friends); and [may also have a proximity tie (they are residing in the same apartment and their flats are two doors away on the same floor).]

1. Monge, P.R., Contractor, N.: Theories of Communication Networks. Oxford University Press, New York (2003)

Network researchers have examined a broad range of types of ties. These include communication ties (such as who talks to whom, or who gives information or advice to whom), formal ties (such as who reports to whom), affective ties (such as who likes whom, or who trusts whom), material or work flow ties (such as who gives money or other resources to whom), proximity ties (who is spatially or electronically close to whom), and cognitive ties (such as who knows who knows whom). Networks are typically mutiplex [sic], that is, actors share more than one type of tie. For example, two academic colleagues might have a formal tie (one is an assistant professor and reports to the other, who is the department chairperson)

[page 309]

and an affective tie (they are friends) and a proximity tie (their offices are two doors away).

Anmerkungen

The copied text continues on the next page: Nm2/Fragment 431 03

The source is not mentioned anywhere in this paper, although the text has been taken from the source and adapted to terrorist networks. One of the authors of reference 1 is, however, co-author in Katz, et al. But this exact wording is not to be found in Monge & Contractor, only in Katz, et al.

Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman


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