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How Investigative Data Mining Can Help Intelligence Agencies to Discover Dependence of Nodes in Terrorist Networks

von Nasrullah Memon, David L. Hicks, Henrik Legind Larsen

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[1.] Nm2/Fragment 431 03 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-11 22:42:50 Hindemith
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Quelle: Katz et al 2004
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Network researchers have distinguished between strong ties (such as family and friends) and weak ties such as acquaintances [2, 3]. This distinction will involve a multitude of facets, including affect, mutual obligations, reciprocity, and intensity. Strong ties are particularly valuable when an individual seeks socio-emotional support and often entail a high level of trust. Weak ties are more valuable when individuals are seeking diverse or unique information from someone outside their regular frequent contacts.

Ties may be non directional (for example, Atta attends a meeting with Nawaf Alhazmi) or vary in direction (for instance, Bin Laden gives advice to Atta vs. Atta gets advice from Bin Laden). They may vary in content (Atta talks with Khalid about the trust of his friends in using them as human bombs and his recent meeting with Bin Laden), frequency (daily, weekly, monthly, etc.), and medium (face-to-face conversation, written memos, email, fax, instant messages, etc.). Finally ties may vary in sign, ranging from positive (Iraqis like Zarqawi) to negative (Jordanians dislike Zarqawi).


2. Granovetter, M.: The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology 81, 1287– 1303 (1973)

3. Granovetter, M.: The Strength of Weak Ties: A Network Theory Revisited. In: Collins, R. (ed.) Sociological Theory, pp. 105–130 (1982)

Network researchers have distinguished between strong ties (such as family and friends) and weak ties (such as acquaintances) (Granovetter, 1973, 1982). This distinction can involve a multitude of facets, including affect, mutual obligations, reciprocity, and intensity. Strong ties are particularly valuable when an individual seeks socioemotional support and often entail a high level of trust. Weak ties are more valuable when individuals are seeking diverse or unique information from someone outside their regular frequent contacts. This information could include new job or market opportunities.

Ties may be nondirectional (Joe attends a meeting with Jane) or vary in direction (Joe gives advice to Jane vs. Joe gets advice from Jane). They may also vary in content (Joe talks to Jack about the weather and to Jane about sports), frequency (daily, weekly, monthly, etc.), and medium (face-to-face conversation, written memos, e-mail, instant messaging, etc.). Finally, ties may vary in sign, ranging from positive (Joe likes Jane) to negative (Joe dislikes Jane).


Granovetter,M. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 81, 1287-1303.

Granovetter,M. (1982). The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. In R. Collins (Ed.), Sociological theory 1983 (pp. 105-130). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Anmerkungen

The source is mentioned nowhere in the paper, although the text has been taken from it after adapting it to terrorist networks: e.g. "Joe talks to Jane" becomes "Atta talks with Khalid"

The two references to Granovetter are also taken from the source.

The copied text begins on the previous page: Nm2/Fragment 430 28

Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman

[2.] Nm2/Fragment 431 20 - Diskussion
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Structural network patterns in terms of subgroups and individual roles are important in understanding the organization and operation of terrorist networks. Such knowledge can help law enforcement and intelligence agencies to disrupt terrorist networks and develop effective control strategies to combat terrorism. For example, capture of central members in a network may effectively upset the operational network and put a terrorist organization out of action [4, 5, 6]. Subgroups and interaction patterns between groups are helpful in finding a network’s overall structure, which often reveals points of vulnerability [7, 8].

4. Baker, W.E., Faulkner, R.R.: The Social Organization of Conspiracy: Illegal Networks in the Heavy Electrical Equipment Industry. American Sociological Review 58(6), 837–860 (1993)

5. McAndrew, D.: The Structural Analysis of Criminal Networks. In: Canter, D., Alison, L. (eds.) The Social Psychology of Crime: Groups, Teams, and Networks, Aldershot, Dartmouth. Offender Profiling Series, III, pp. 53–94 (1999)

6. Sparrow, M.: The Application of Network Analysis to Criminal Intelligence: An Assessment of the Prospects. Social Networks 13, 251–274 (1991)

7. Evan, W.M.: An Organization-set Model of Inter-organizational Relations. In: Tuite, M., Chisholm, R., Radnor, M. (eds.) Inter-organizational Decision-making, Aldine, Chicago, pp. 181–200 (1972)

8. Ronfeldt, D., Arquilla, J.: What Next for Networks and Netwars? In: Arquilla, J., Ronfeldt, D. (eds.) Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy, Rand Press (2001)

Structural network patterns in terms of subgroups, between-group interactions, and individual roles thus are important to understanding the organization, structure, and operation of criminal enterprises. Such knowledge can help law enforcement and intelligence agencies disrupt criminal networks and develop effective control strategies to combat organized crimes such as narcotic trafficking and terrorism. For exam-

[page 233]

ple, removal of central members in a network may effectively upset the operational network and put a criminal enterprise out of action [3, 17, 21]. Subgroups and interaction patterns between groups are helpful for finding a network’s overall structure, which often reveals points of vulnerability [9, 19].


3. Baker, W. E., Faulkner R. R.: The social organization of conspiracy: illegal networks in the heavy electrical equipment industry. American Sociological Review, Vol. 58, No. 12. (1993) 837–860.

9. Evan, W. M.: An organization-set model of interorganizational relations. In: M. Tuite, R. Chisholm, M. Radnor (eds.): Interorganizational Decision-making. Aldine, Chicago (1972) 181–200.

17. McAndrew, D.: The structural analysis of criminal networks. In: Canter, D., Alison, L. (eds.): The Social Psychology of Crime: Groups, Teams, and Networks, Offender Profiling Series, III, Aldershot, Dartmouth (1999) 53–94.

19. Ronfeldt, D., Arquilla, J.: What next for networks and netwars? In: Arquilla, J., Ronfeldt, D. (eds.): Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy. Rand Press, (2001).

21. Sparrow, M. K.: The application of network analysis to criminal intelligence: An assessment of the prospects. Social Networks, Vol. 13. (1991) 251–274.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned anywhere in the paper.

The text has been adapted from criminal networks to terrorist networks and also five references to the literature have been copied.

Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman

[3.] Nm2/Fragment 431 27 - Diskussion
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Networks come in basically three types [9]:

(1) The chain network, as in a smuggling chain, where people, goods, or information move along a line of separated contacts and where end-to-end communication must travel through the intermediate nodes. (2) The star, hub, or wheel network, as in a terrorist syndicate or a cartel structure, where a set of actors is tied to a central node or actor and all must go through that node to communicate and coordinate with each other. (3) The all-channel network, as in a collaborative network of small militant groups, in which every group or node is connected to every other node.

Each type of network may be suited to different conditions and purposes, and there may be any number of hybrids. The all-channel network has historically been the most difficult to organize and sustain, partly because of the dense communications required. Yet the all-channel network is the type that is gaining strength from the information revolution. The design is flat. Ideally, there is no single, central leadership or command or headquarters—-no precise heart or head that can be targeted. Decision-making and operations are decentralized, allowing for local initiative and autonomy [10].


9. Arquilla, J., Ronfeldt, D.: Swarming and a Future of Conflict. RAND National Defense Institute (2001)

10. Hoffman, B.: Terrorism evolves Toward Netwar. RAND Review 22(2) (1999)

[page 7]

networks come in basically three types or topologies (see Figure 1.1):

  • The chain or line network, as in a smuggling chain where people, goods, or information move along a line of separated contacts, and where end-to-end communication must travel through the intermediate nodes.
  • The hub, star, or wheel network, as in a franchise or a cartel where a set of actors are tied to a central (but not hierarchical) node or actor, and must go through that node to communicate and coordinate with each other.

[page 8]

[FIGURE]

  • The all-channel or full-matrix network, as in a collaborative network of militant peace groups where everybody is connected to everybody else.

[...]

Each type may be suited to different conditions and purposes, [...] There may also be hybrids of the three types,[...]

[page 9]

Of the three network types, the all-channel has been the most difficult to organize and sustain, partly because it may require dense communications. But it is the type that gives the network form its new, high potential for collaborative undertakings and that is gaining new strength from the information revolution. [...] The organizational design is flat. Ideally, there is no single, central leadership, command, or headquarters—-no precise heart or head that can be targeted. [...] Decisionmaking and operations are decentralized, allowing for local initiative and autonomy.

Anmerkungen

The source is given at the beginning, but it is not clear to the reader that the source is being followed verbatim at times and also in one paragraph further down.

Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman


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