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Structural Analysis and Mathematical Methods for Destabilizing Terrorist Networks Using Investigative Data Mining

von Nasrullah Memon, Henrik Legind Larsen

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[1.] Nm3/Fragment 1040 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-29 18:51:20 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, Koschade 2005, Nm3, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
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Seite(n): 2, 3, Zeilen: 2: 8ff; 3: 33-35.38-40
The method focuses on uncovering the patterning of people’s interaction, and correctly interpreting these networks assists “in predicting behaviour and decision-making within the network”.

The method also endows the analyst the ability to measure the level of covertness and efficiency of the cell as a whole, and also the level of activity, ability to access others, and the level of control over a network each individual possesses. The measurement of these criteria allows specific counter-terrorism applications to be drawn, and assists in the assessment of the most effective methods of disrupting and neutralising a terrorist cell. In short IDM “provides a useful way of structuring knowledge and framing further research. Ideally it can also enhance an analyst’s predictive capability”.

[page 2]

The method also endows the analyst the ability to measure the level of covertness and efficiency of the cell as a whole, and also the level of activity, ability to access others, and the level of control over a network each individual possesses. The measurement of these criteria allows specific counter-terrorism applications to be drawn, and assists in the assessment of the most effective methods of disrupting and neutralising a terrorist cell.

[page 3]

The method focuses on uncovering the patterning of people’s interaction,9 and correctly interpreting these networks assists “in predicting behaviour and decision-making within the network”.10 [...] In short, social network analysis “provides a useful way of structuring knowledge and framing further research. Ideally it can also enhance an analyst’s predictive capability”.12


9 Freeman, L. (nd) ‘The Study of Social Networks’, The International Network for Social Network Analysis, Retrieved May 17, 2004, from http://www.sfu.ca/~insna/INSNA/na_inf.html.

10 Renfro, R. & Deckro, R. (2001). “A Social Network Analysis of the Iranian Government”, paper presented at 69th MORS Symposium, 12-14 June, 2001, p. 4.

12 Aftergood, S. (2004) ‘Secrecy News: Social Network Analysis and Intelligence’ [online], Federation of American Scientists Project on Government Secrecy, Vol. 2004, 15. Retrieved May 17, 2004, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/ news/secrecy/2004/02/020904.html.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Several references have been removed, although the quotation marks indicate that two passages come from other (unnamed) authors.

Sichter
(Hindemith), Graf Isolan

[2.] Nm3/Fragment 1040 13 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-29 23:36:31 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Mukherjee Holder 2004, Nm3, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Covert networks like terrorist networks remain mingled with socially oriented networks (like families, organizations etc.) in the real world. The buzz word for covert networks is “secrecy” and hence to discover such networks (technically, to discern distinctive patterns in the activities and communications of such dark networks) can be very tricky and often misleading due to unavailability of authentic data or in some cases availability of “doctored” data. This issue has especially blown up in the recent past and after the September 11, 2001 tragedy, it has been in the limelight so much so that it is worthwhile to take a close look at the distinguishing properties of such networks. For Example:

(1) In bright networks, actors who are highly central are typically the most important ones. On the contrary, peripheral players (or “boundary spanners” as they are typically called) may be huge resources to a terrorist group although they receive very low network centrality scores. This is because they are well positioned to be innovators, since they have access to ideas and information flowing in other clusters. Similarly, in an organization, these peripheral employees are in a position to combine different ideas and knowledge into new products and services. They may be contractors or vendors who have their own network outside of the company, making them very important resources for fresh information not available inside the company (Krebs V., 2002, Hanneman, R., 2000).

(2) The role of a “broker” (Krebs V., 2002) is a very powerful role in a social network as it ties two hitherto unconnected constituencies / groups together but of course, it is a single-point of failure. These broker type roles are often seen in terrorist networks. Such nodes are also referred to as “cutpoints” (Hanneman, R., 2000).


10. Hanneman, R. E., Introduction to Social Network Methods. Online Textbook Supporting Sociology 175. Riverside, CA: University of California, 2000.

13. Krebs, V.: Mapping networks of terrorist cells. Connections 24, 45–52, 2002.

Covert networks remain mingled with socially-oriented networks (like families, organizations etc.) in the real world. The buzz word for covert networks is “secrecy” and hence to discover such networks (technically, to discern distinctive patterns in the activities and communications of such illegitimate groups) can be very tricky and often misleading due to unavailability of authentic data or in some cases availability of “doctored” data. This issue has especially blown up in the recent past and after the September 11, 2001 tragedy, it has been in the limelight so much so that it is worthwhile to take a close look at the distinguishing properties of such networks.

[...]

(3) In legitimate networks, actors who are highly central are typically the most important ones. On the contrary, peripheral players (or “boundary spanners” as they are typically called) may be huge resources to a terrorist group although they receive very low network centrality scores. This is because they are well-positioned to be innovators, since they have access to ideas and information flowing in other clusters. Similarly, in an organization, these peripheral employees are in a position to combine different ideas and knowledge into new products and services. They may be contractors or vendors who have their own network outside of the company, making them very important resources for fresh information not available inside the company [5, 8].

[page 49]

(9) The role of a “broker” [8] is a very powerful role in a social network as it ties two hitherto unconnected constituencies/groups together but of course, it is a single-point of failure. These broker-type roles are often seen in terrorist networks. Such nodes are also referred to as “cutpoints” [5].


[5] Robert Hanneman: Introduction to Social Network Methods, Department of Sociology, University of California, Riverside. (URL: http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman /SOC157/Software/NETTEXT.PDF).

[8] Valdis E. Krebs: Uncloaking Terrorist Networks (URL: http://www.firstmonday.dk/ issues/issue7_4/krebs). First Monday, volume 7, number 4, April 2002.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Indeed, the number of Hanneman's undergraduate sociology course was 157 and not 175, as Nm3 claims.

Sichter
(Hindemith), Graf Isolan


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