A critical discussion of the publication by Nasrullah Memon, David L. Hicks, Nicholas Harkiolakis and Abdul Qadeer Khan Rajput: Small World Terrorist Networks: A Preliminary Investigation
The following chart illustrates the amount and the distribution of the findings of text parallels. The colours show the type of plagiarism diagnosed:
- rot="Verschleierung": the source of the text parallel is not given, the copied text will be somewhat modified.
- gelb="Bauernopfer": the source of the text parallel is mentioned, but the extent and/or closeness of the copying is not made clear by the reference.
Prominent findings of plagiarism
- Fragment 340 01: A passage is taken verbatim from a source that is not mentioned anywhere in the paper. The authors quote the first author's PhD thesis, which, however, was published after the source.
- Fragment 342 01: A fairly long passage is taken almost verbatim from a source that is named at the end of the passage. However, it is not clear to the reader at all, that the entire passage (in which more references are given) is taken from this source.
- Currently there are 7 reviewed fragments documented that are considered to be violations of citation rules. For 4 of them there is no reference given to the source used („Verschleierungen“ and „Komplettplagiate“). For 3 fragments the source is given, but the extent of the used text is not made clear („Bauernopfer“).
- The publication has 6 pages that have been analyzed. On a total of 4 of these pages violations of citation rules have been documented. This represents a percentage of 66.7%. The 6 analyzed pages break down with respect to the amount of text parallels encountered as follows:
- From these statistics an extrapolation of the amount of text of the publication under investigation that has been documented as problematic can be estimated (conservatively) as about 25% of the main part of the publication.
- In all, text was taken from 3 sources.
Some of the text of the paper has been presented by the authors previously:
- Section 3 and the beginning of section 4 (p.341: 29-39; p.342: all) can also be found in: Memon et al. (2007c) (retracted)
- Almost the entire section 1 (introduction: p.339: 19-40; p. 340: 1-26) can also be found in: Memon et al. (2007e) (retracted)
Memon, Hicks, Larsen (2007c): Harvesting Terrorists Information from Web 11th International Conference Information Visualization (IV'07), 0-7695-2900-3/07 2007 IEEE (retracted)
Memon, Hicks, Hussain, Larsen (2007e): Practical Algorithms and Mathematical models for destabilizing terrorist networks in Military Communications Conference, 1-7. MILCOM 2007. IEEE (retracted)
Appendix 1: Fragments
Remark on the colouring
The colouring is automatically generated and shows text parallels. Its purpose is to facilitate the orientation of the reader, it does not, however, automatically diagnose plagiarism of any kind. In order to form a judgement about a certain text parallel one should consult the text itself.
Remark on the line numbering
When identifying a fragment with line numbers everything that contains text (except for the page header and/or footer) is counted, including headings. Usually charts, tables etc. including their captions are not counted, however.
5 gesichtete, geschützte Fragmente