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Detecting Hidden Hierarchy in Terrorist Networks: Some Case Studies

von Nasrullah Memon, Henrik Legind Larsen, David L. Hicks, and Nicholas Harkiolakis

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[1.] Nm6/Fragment 478 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-09 14:14:02 Hindemith
BauernOpfer, Combating Terrorism Center 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, Nm6, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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[Al Qaeda did not decide to decentralize until 2002, following the ouster of the Taliban from Afghanistan and the arrest of a number of key Al Qaeda leaders including Abu Zubaydhah, Al Qaeda’s Dean of students, Ramzi bin Al Shibh, the organizer of the Hamburg cell of 9/11 hijackers, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the] mastermind of 9/11 and the financier of the first World Trade Center attack, and Tawfiq Attash Kallad, the master mind of the USS Cole attack. In response to these and other key losses, Al Qaeda allegedly convened a strategic summit in northern Iran in November 2002, at which the group’s consultative council decided that it could no longer operate as a hierarchy, but instead would have to decentralize [4].

4. Felter, J., et al.: Harmony and Disharmony: Exploiting al-Qa’ida’s Organizational Vulnerabilities, pp. 7–9. United States Military Academy, West Point (2006)

Indeed, several years ago al-Qa’ida’s leaders recognized that the achievement of their ultimate goals and objectives required a more decentralized, networked approach. In 2001, following the ouster of the Taliban from Afghanistan, a number of al-Qa’ida leaders suddenly found themselves in detention centers facing long months of interrogation. Abu Zubaydah, al-Qa’ida’s “dean of students,” who directed training and placement for the group, was captured in Faisalabad, Pakistan, in February 2002. Ramzi Bin al Shibh, the organizer of the Hamburg, Germany cell that formed the core of the 9/11 hijackers, was captured in Karachi, Pakistan, on the first anniversary of the attacks. These and other counterterrorism successes ultimately led to the capture of Khalid Sheik Mohammed, the mastermind of 9/11 and the financier of the first World Trade Center attack, in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, in March 2003. And a month later, Tawfiq Attash Kallad, the mastermind of the USS Cole attack, was apprehended in Karachi. In response to the loss of key leaders, al-Qa’ida allegedly convened a strategic summit in northern Iran in November 2002, at which the group’s consultative council came to recognize that it could no longer exist as a hierarchy, but instead would have to become a decentralized network and move its operations out over the entire world.10

10 Robert Windrem, 2005.

Anmerkungen

The source is given at the end of the paragraph, but the extent of the text borrowed from it and the closeness of the text parallel does not become clear from this reference.

The text parallel starts on the previous page: Nm6/Fragment_477_30

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[2.] Nm6/Fragment 478 13 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-09 10:03:33 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Nm6, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Yang et al 2005

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Hierarchy, as one common feature of many real world networks, has attracted special attention in recent years [5] [6] [7] [8]. Hierarchy is one of the key aspects of a theoretical model to capture statistical characteristics of terrorist networks.

In the literature, several concepts are proposed to measure the hierarchy in a network, such as the hierarchical path [7], the scaling law for the clustering coefficients of nodes in a network [5], etc. These measures can tell us of the existence and extent of hierarchy in a network. We address herein the problem of how to construct hidden hierarchy in terrorist networks (which are known as horizontal networks).


5. Ravasz, E., Barabasi, A.L.: Hierarchical Organization in Complex Networks. J. Physical Review E 67, 026112

6. Costa, L.D.F.: Hierarchical Backbone of Complex Networks. Physical Review Lett. 93, 098702 (2004)

7. Trusina, A., Maslov, S., Minnhagen, P., Sneppen, K.: Hierarchy Measures in Complex Networks. Physical Review Lett. 92, 178702

8. Variano, E.A., et al.: Networks Dynamics and Modularity. Physical Review Lett. 92, 188701 (2004)

Hierarchy, as one common feature for many real world networks, attracts special attentions [sic] in recent years [9-12]. [...] Hierarchy is one of the key aspects of a theoretical model [9,13] to capture the statistical characteristics of a large number of real networks, including the metabolic [14,15], the protein interaction [16,17] and some social networks [18-20].

In literature, several concepts are proposed to measure the hierarchy in a network, such as the hierarchical path [10], the scaling law for the clustering coefficients of the nodes [9], the hierarchical components/degree [11], etc. These measures can tell us the existence and the extent of hierarchy in a network. We address herein another problem, that is, how to reconstruct the hierarchical structure in a network.


[9] E. Ravasz and A. -L. Barabasi, Phys. Rev. E 67, 026112(2003).

[10] A. Trusina, S. Maslov, P. Minnhagen and K. Sneppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 178702(2004).

[11] L. D. F. Costa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 098702(2004).

[12] E. A. Variano, J. H. McCoy and H. Lipson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92,188701(2004).

[...]

Anmerkungen

The source is not given, although this passage has been taken from it including all references to the literature.

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[3.] Nm6/Fragment 478 44 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-08 23:14:49 Hindemith
Fragment, Gesichtet, Nm6, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Stephenson and Zelen 1989, Verschleierung

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Quelle: Stephenson and Zelen 1989
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A review of key centrality concepts can be found in the papers by Freeman, et al. [9]. Their work has significantly contributed to the [conceptual clarification and theoretical application of centrality.]

9. Freeman, L.C., Freeman, S.C., Michaelson, A.G.: On Human Social Intelligence. Journal of Social and Biological Structures 11, 415–425 (1988)

A review of key centrality concepts can be found in the papers by Freeman (1979a,b). His work has significantly contributed to the conceptual clarification and theoretical application of centrality.

Freeman, L.C.

1979 a “Centrality in Social Networks: Conceptual Clarification.” Social Networks I: 215-239.

Anmerkungen

The reference to Freeman et al. is to a different paper, a group work that does not deal with centrality concepts.

Stephenson & Zelen 1989 are not mentioned anywhere in the paper.

To be continued on the next page: Nm6/Fragment_479_03

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