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3 unfertige Fragmente

[1.] Ntx/Fragment 002 03 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. November 2014, 14:18 (Graf Isolan)
Erstellt: 28. November 2014, 14:18 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Ntx, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Unfertig, Verschleierung, Wikipedia Eosinophil granulocyte 2008

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Quelle: Wikipedia Eosinophil granulocyte 2008
Seite(n): 1 (Internetquelle), Zeilen: -
• Eosinophils: are one of the immune system components responsible for combating infection and parasites in vertebrates. Along with mast cells, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during haematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood (Blanchard and Rothenberg 2009; Trivedi and Lloyd 2007).

Blanchard,C., Rothenberg,M.E., 2009. Biology of the eosinophil. Adv. Immunol. 101, 81-121.

Trivedi,S.G., Lloyd,C.M., 2007. Eosinophils in the pathogenesis of allergic airways disease. Cell Mol. Life Sci. 64, 1269-1289.

Eosinophil granulocyte

[...]

Eosinophil granulocytes, usually called eosinophils (or, less commonly, acidophils), are white blood cells that are one of the immune system components responsible for combating infection and parasites in vertebrates. Along with mast cells, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during Haematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood.

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[2.] Ntx/Fragment 001 27 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. November 2014, 13:45 (Graf Isolan)
Erstellt: 28. November 2014, 13:45 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Ntx, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Unfertig, Verschleierung, Wikipedia Mast cell 2008

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Quelle: Wikipedia Mast cell 2008
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• Mast cells: are resident cells of several types of tissues which contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately [involved in wound healing and defense against pathogens (Galli et al 2008; Heib et al 2008).]

Galli,S.J., Grimbaldeston,M., Tsai,M., 2008. Immunomodulatory mast cells: negative, as well as positive, regulators of immunity. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 8, 478-486.

Heib,V., Becker,M., Taube,C., Stassen,M., 2008. Advances in the understanding of mast cell function. Br. J. Haematol. 142, 683-694.

Mast cell

[...]

A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of several types of tissues and contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing and defense against pathogens.[1]


1. Prussin C, Metcalfe DD (2003). "IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils". J Allergy Clin Immunol 111 (2 Suppl): S486–94. doi:10.1067/mai.2003.120. PMID 12592295.

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[3.] Ntx/Fragment 001 05 - Diskussion
Bearbeitet: 28. November 2014, 13:12 (Graf Isolan)
Erstellt: 28. November 2014, 12:12 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Ntx, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, Unfertig, Verschleierung, Wikipedia Innate immune system 2008

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Quelle: Wikipedia Innate immune system 2008
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1.1.1. Innate immune system

The innate immune system comprises white blood cells which are known as leukocytes and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms, in a non-specific manner. This means that the cells of the innate system recognize and respond to pathogens in a generic way. Innate immune system provides immediate defense against infection, and is found in all classes of plant and animal life (Rasmussen et al 2009).

The major functions of the vertebrate innate immune system include (Janeway, Jr. 2001; Kumar et al 2009; Mogensen 2009):

• Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection and inflammation, through the production of chemical factors, including specialized chemical mediators, called cytokines.

• Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells and to promote clearance of dead cells or antibody complexes.

• The identification and removal of foreign substances present in organs, tissues, the blood and lymph, by specialized white blood cells.

• Activation of the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation.


Janeway,C.A., Jr., 2001b. How the immune system protects the host from infection. Microbes. Infect. 3, 1167-1171.

Kumar,H., Kawai,T., Akira,S., 2009. Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response. Biochem. J. 420, 1-16.

Mogensen,T.H., 2009. Pathogen recognition and inflammatory signaling in innate immune defenses. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 22, 240-73, Table.

Rasmussen,S.B., Reinert,L.S., Paludan,S.R., 2009. Innate recognition of intracellular pathogens: detection and activation of the first line of defense. APMIS 117, 323-337.

Innate immune system

[...]

The innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms, in a non-specific manner. This means that the cells of the innate system recognize, and respond to, pathogens in a generic way, but unlike the adaptive immune system, it does not confer long-lasting or protective immunity to the host.[1] Innate immune systems provide immediate defense against infection, and are found in all classes of plant and animal life.

Functions

[...][2]

The major functions of the vertebrate innate immune system include:

• Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection and inflammation, through the production of chemical factors, including specialized chemical mediators, called cytokines.

• Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells and to promote clearance of dead cells or antibody complexes.

• The identification and removal of foreign substances present in organs, tissues, the blood and lymph, by specialized white blood cells.

• Activation of the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation.


1. Alberts, Bruce; Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and Peter Walters (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell; Fourth Edition. New York and London: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-3218-1.

2. Janeway, Charles; Paul Travers, Mark Walport, and Mark Shlomchik (2001). Immunobiology; Fifth Edition. New York and London: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-4101-6. .

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