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Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 17, Zeilen: 9-28
Quelle: Hapel and Stanley 2006
Seite(n): 2, Zeilen: 20ff
Cytokines exert their action through high-affinity receptors on the cell surface that are linked to pathways of cellular activation, commitment, differentiation, survival, proliferation and differentiation.

Cross-linking of receptor subunits on the outside of the cell wall leads to adjoining of kinases associated with the intracellular receptor tails, either as intrinsic activities, or because of pre-association of secondary kinase molecules. This intracellular association of signaling molecules results in phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the receptor tail and binding of further signaling molecules that have phospho-tyrosine-binding domains. Several aspects of the downstream intracellular pathways of cytokines are similar, because different activated receptor cytoplasmic domains often bind a common signaling molecule or family of signaling molecules. Thus stoichiometry and rate of reaction are important regulatory influences that allow discrimination between signaling processes with different outcomes (Molecular cell biology. Lodish, Harvey F. 5. ed. )

1.3.2. Cooperative Interaction of Cytokines

For efficient in vitro proliferation and differentiation, pluripotent and multipotent progenitor cells require a combination of cytokines [e.g. SCF, IL-1, IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF, and colony stimulating factor-1, (CSF-1)]. Immature haematopoietic cells have been shown to co-express a number of different lineage specific receptors at low levels. As these immature cells develop, they lose receptors for [some cytokines e.g. SCF and IL-3, while retaining receptors for later acting cytokines such as CSF-1.]

Cytokines exert their action through high-affinity receptors on the cell surface that are linked to pathways of cellular activation, survival, proliferation and differentiation. Cross-linking of receptor subunits on the outside of the cell wall leads to abutting of kinases associated with the intracellular receptor tails, either as intrinsic activities, or because of pre-association of secondary kinase molecules. This intracellular association of signalling molecules results in phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the receptor tail and binding of further signalling molecules that have phospho-tyrosine-binding domains. Several aspects of the downstream intracellular pathways of cytokines are similar, because different activated receptor cytoplasmic domains often bind a common signalling molecule or family of signalling molecules. Thus stoichiometry and rate of reaction are important regulatory influences that allow discrimination between signalling processes with different outcomes.

Cooperative Interaction of Cytokines in Proliferation and Differentiation

For efficient in vitro proliferation and differentiation, PPSCs and multi-potent progenitor cells require a combination of cytokines. (e.g., SCF, IL-1, IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF, and CSF-1).23,24 As might be expected from this observation, immature haematopoietic cells have been shown to co-express a number of different lineage specific receptors at low levels.25 As these immature cells develop, they lose receptors for some cytokines e.g., SCF and IL-3, while retaining receptors for later acting cytokines such as CSF-1.


23. Bradley TR, Hodgson GS. Detection of primitive macrophage progenitor cells in mouse bone marrow. Blood 1979; 54:1446–1450.

24. Stanley ER, Bartocci A, Patinkin D et al. Regulation of very primitive multipotent haematopoietic cells by Hemopoietin–1. Cell 1986; 45:667–674.

25. Cross MA, Enver T. The lineage commitment of haematopoietic progenitor cells. Curr Opin Genet Devel 1997; 7:609-613.

Anmerkungen

Identical, without any part of it marked as a citation.

Pak names a general source, but this passage is not to be found there.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Singulus

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