# Quelle:Aeh/Smith et al 2006

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 Autor Justin M. Smith, Daniel P. Bradley, Michael F. James, Christopher L.-H. Huang Titel Physiological studies of cortical spreading depression Zeitschrift Biological Reviews Herausgeber Cambridge Philosophical Society Ausgabe 81 Jahr 2006 Seiten 457–481 DOI 10.1017/S1464793106007081 URL http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2006.tb00214.x/abstract Literaturverz. no Fußnoten no Fragmente 1

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 Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-29 22:12:40 Schumann

 Typus Verschleierung Bearbeiter Hindemith Gesichtet
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 6, Zeilen: 5-10, 12-16
Quelle: Smith et al 2006
Seite(n): 459, Zeilen: l.col: 2ff
It was first induced by applying a brief tetanus of faradic stimulation to the rabbit cortex (Leao, 1944; Bures et al., 1974). Mechanical stimulation, for example, by stroking of the cortical surface with a blunt instrument, a falling weight or even lightly tapping the cortex also initiates SD (Lea˜o [sic], 1944). More recent studies have achieved more reliable and reproducible induction of SD by rapidly inserting and retracting hypodermic steel needles (Lambert et al., 1999; Ebersberger et al., 2001). [...] This model has been shown to be the most reliable stimulus leading to reproducible events on earlier occasions in both non-imaging and imaging studies (Bradley et al., 2001). In any case, changes in extracellular K+ concentration themselves might be involved in such pathophysiological processes in human brain tissue (Mayevsky et al., 1996; Nicholson and Sykova, 1998). SD appears to affect both the neuronal and the glial cells. The CSD phenomenon is exclusive to the central nervous system (CNS) and appears to involve both the neuronal and the glial cell populations. [...] CSD was first induced by applying a brief tetanus of faradic stimulation to the rabbit cortex (Leão, 1944; Bureš, Buresová & Krivánek, 1974). [...]

Mechanical stimulation, for example, by stroking of the cortical surface with a blunt instrument, a falling weight or even lightly tapping the cortex also evokes CSD (Leão, 1944; Zachar & Zacharová, 1963). More recent studies have achieved more reliable and reproducible induction of CSD by rapidly inserting and retracting hypodermic steel needles (Kaube & Goadsby, 1994; Lambert et al., 1999; Ebersberger et al., 2001), [...]

Of available methods KCl has thus proven to be the most reliable stimulus leading to reproducible events on earlier occasions in both non-imaging (Bureš et al., 1974, 1984; Lehmankühler & Richter, 1993; Smith et al., 1998, 2000; Read et al., 1999; Martins-Ferreira et al., 2000; Kuge et al., 2000) and imaging studies (Gardner-Medwin et al., 1994; Latour et al., 1994;Hasegawa et al., 1995; de Crespigny et al., 1996, 1998; James et al., 1999; Bockhorst et al., 2000; Kuge et al., 2000; Bradley et al., 2001, 2002). In any case, changes in extracellular K+ concentration ([K+])o themselves might be involved in such pathophysiological processes in human brain tissue (Mayevsky et al., 1996; Nicholson & Sykova´, 1998).

 Anmerkungen The source is not mentioned. Sichter (Hindemith) Schumann