Fandom

VroniPlag Wiki

Quelle:Arc/Demetri and Griffin 1991

< Quelle:Arc

31.371Seiten in
diesem Wiki
Seite hinzufügen
Diskussion0

Störung durch Adblocker erkannt!


Wikia ist eine gebührenfreie Seite, die sich durch Werbung finanziert. Benutzer, die Adblocker einsetzen, haben eine modifizierte Ansicht der Seite.

Wikia ist nicht verfügbar, wenn du weitere Modifikationen in dem Adblocker-Programm gemacht hast. Wenn du sie entfernst, dann wird die Seite ohne Probleme geladen.

Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     George D. Demetri, James D. Griffin
Titel    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and its receptor
Zeitschrift    Blood
Herausgeber    American Society of Hematology
Ausgabe    78
Datum    1. December 1991
Nummer    10
Seiten    2791-2808
ISSN    1528-0020
URL    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/21435817_Granulocyte_colony-stimulating_factor_and_its_receptor

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    5


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Arc/Fragment 012 03 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-25 21:58:12 Hindemith
Arc, Demetri and Griffin 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

Typus
Verschleierung
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 12, Zeilen: 3-11
Quelle: Demetri and Griffin 1991
Seite(n): 2791, Zeilen: left col. 1-14
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a polypeptide growth factor that regulates the production of neutrophilic granulocytes. This physiological process serves as the foundation for critical host defence systems and occurs on a large scale in vivo. An adult of average size will produce approximately 120 billion granulocytes per day simply to replace normal losses1. This enormous production capacity may be increased by at least 10-fold under stress conditions such as infection. G-CSF plays a pivotal role in the basal regulation of neutrophil production as well as functioning as a primary regulatory factor controlling the neutrophil response to inflammatory stimuli. Also, G-CSF exhibits other biological activities and G-CSF-induced hematopoietic stem cell mobilization is widely used clinically for peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

1. Basu S, Dunn A, Ward A. G-CSF: function and modes of action (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2002;10:3-10.

GRANULOCYTE colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a polypeptide growth factor that regulates the production of neutrophilic granulocytes. This physiologic process serves as the foundation for critical host defense systems and occurs on a large scale in vivo. An adult of average size will produce approximately 120 billion granulocytes per day simply to replace normal losses. This enormous production capacity may be increased by at least 10-fold under stress conditions such as infection. G-CSF is likely to play a role in the basal regulation of neutrophil production as well as to function as a primary regulatory factor controlling the neutrophil response to inflammatory stimuli. Further, G-CSF exhibits other biologic activities besides proliferative effects: [...]
Anmerkungen

This passage is not recognizable as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Schumann

[2.] Arc/Fragment 012 19 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-26 21:57:37 Schumann
Arc, BauernOpfer, Demetri and Griffin 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 12, Zeilen: 19-29
Quelle: Demetri and Griffin 1991
Seite(n): 2791, Zeilen: left col. 16-32
G-CSF possesses unique and interesting characteristics among the family of hematopoietic growth factors. This chapter will summarize the current state of knowledge of the structure and function of G-CSF and its receptor.

I.1 Identification of G-CSF and its gene

The identification of CSFs was made possible by cell culture assays for hematopoietic progenitor cells developed in the mid 1960s by Metcalf and his colleagues2. These in vitro systems showed that the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of immature hematopoietic cells were dependent on the continued presence of humoral factors, which was collectively termed “colony-stimulating activity” (CSA)3. Before the purification of individual factors, early sources of CSA [included media that was conditioned by stimulated cultures of normal blood or certain tumour cells.]


2. Bradley TR, Robinson W, Metcalf D. Colony production in vitro by normal polycythaemic and anaemic bone marrow. Nature. 1967;214:511.

3. Demetri GD, Griffin JD. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and its receptor. Blood. 1991;78:2791-2808.

G-CSF possesses unique and interesting characteristics among the family of hematopoietic growth factors. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge of the structure and function of G-CSF and its receptor.

IDENTIFICATION OF G-CSF

The identification of CSFs was made possible by the cell culture assays for hematopoietic progenitor cells, which were developed in the mid 1960s independently by Metcalf, Sachs, and their colleagues. These in vitro systems showed that the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of immature hematopoietic cells were dependent on the continued presence of humoral factors, which were collectively termed “colony-stimulating activity” (CSA). Before the purification of individual factors, early sources of CSA included media conditioned by culture with stimulated normal blood or splenic leukocytes, placenta, or certain tumor cells1-5.


1. Metcalf D: The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors. Science 229:16, 1985

2. Metcalf D: The molecular control of cell division, differentiation commitment and maturation in haemopoietic cells. Nature 339:27, 1989

3. Sachs L The molecular control of blood cell development. Science 238:1374, 1987

4. Quesenberry P, Levitt L Hematopoietic stem cells. N Engl J Med 301:755,1979

5. Golde D, Cline M: Regulation of granulopoiesis. N Engl J Med 291:1388,1974

Anmerkungen

At the end of the page the source is given. Nevertheless nothing has been marked as a citation and it is not clear to the reader that even the end of the previous section is taken verbatim from the source.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[3.] Arc/Fragment 013 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-26 22:03:05 Schumann
Arc, BauernOpfer, Demetri and Griffin 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 13, Zeilen: 1-6, 8-34
Quelle: Demetri and Griffin 1991
Seite(n): 2791-2792, Zeilen: 2791:left col. 29-32.34-37.39-43 - right col. 1-2.4-29.33-36 - 2791:left col. 1-2.26-30.32-35
[Before the purification of individual factors, early sources of CSA] included media that was conditioned by stimulated cultures of normal blood or certain tumour cells. It was initially unclear whether these complex mixtures contained both individual factors specific for proliferation and/or separate factors that would specifically induce differentiation. Further investigation showed that many of these biological activities were attributable to the simultaneous presence of multiple factors in the crude medium. [In 1978, Byrne et al.4 reported that medium that was conditioned by mouse heart tissue was found to contain CSFs which produce in vitro colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages.] Purification of these CSFs proved difficult and for many factors, expression, cloning and production of recombinant proteins were required to completely define the unique biological properties of individual CSFs. G-CSF was probably first identified as having a distinct activity by Burgess and Metcalf5, not by its ability to stimulate proliferation, but rather by the capacity of postendotoxin-treated mouse serum to induce differentiation in a murine leukemic cell line. Therefore, Metcalf initially termed G-CSF a granulocyte-macrophage differentiation factor (GM-DF) and he noted it to be related to (or being the same as) the so-called macrophage- and granulocyte-inducing proteins, reported by Lotem et al.6. GM-DF was shown to be separate from GM-CSF, which had been partially purified in the late 1970s. This distinction was experimentally determined by the generation of neutralizing antiserum that could block the effects of GM-CSF, but which failed to block the activity of GM-DF. GM-DF was then shown to co-purify with a novel medium that selectively stimulated the formation of granulocytic colonies from normal hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro7 and, after further purification, this factor was ultimately renamed G-CSF8. Nicola et al.8 described the biochemical characteristics of murine G-CSF in 1983, as a hydrophobic glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 24-25 Kd, containing a neuraminic acid moiety and at least one internal disulfide bond that was necessary for its biological activity. After the identification of the murine G-CSF, a human molecule with analogous activities was discovered9. Both the proliferation- and differentiation-inducing activities of the murine and human G-CSF molecules cross species boundaries, in contrast to other hematopoietic growth factors such as GM-CSF or interleukin-3 (IL-3) which are active in a species-specific manner on the neutrophilic cell lineage3. In 1986, Nomura et al.10 finally described G-CSF as a molecule that specifically induces growth of the neutrophilic granulocyte lineage of cells.

Further understanding of the biological and biochemical properties of G-CSF was greatly facilitated by cloning of the gene encoding G-CSF and the production of [recombinant protein for study11, 12.]


3. Demetri GD, Griffin JD. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and its receptor. Blood. 1991;78:2791-2808.

4. Byrne PV, Heit W, Kubanek B. Stimulation of in vitro granulocyte--macrophage colony formation by mouse heart conditioned medium. Br J Haematol. 1978;40:197-204.

5. Burgess AW, Metcalf D. Characterization of a serum factor stimulating the differentiation of myelomonocytic leukemic cells. Int J Cancer. 1980;26:647-654.

6. Lotem J, Lipton JH, Sachs L. Separation of different molecular forms of macrophage- and granulocyte-inducing proteins for normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Int J Cancer. 1980;25:763-771.

7. Metcalf D. Clonal extinction of myelomonocytic leukemic cells by serum from mice injected with endotoxin. Int J Cancer. 1980;25:225-233.

8. Nicola NA, Metcalf D, Matsumoto M, Johnson GR. Purification of a factor inducing differentiation in murine myelomonocytic leukemia cells. Identification as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:9017-9023.

9. Nicola NA, Begley CG, Metcalf D. Identification of the human analogue of a regulator that induces differentiation in murine leukaemic cells. Nature. 1985;314:625-628.

10. Nomura H, Imazeki I, Oheda M, Kubota N, Tamura M, Ono M, Ueyama Y, Asano S. Purification and characterization of human granulocyte colonystimulating factor (G-CSF). Embo J. 1986;5:871-876.

11. Nagata S, Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Kaziro Y, Yamazaki T, Yamamoto O, Hirata Y, Kubota N, Oheda M, Nomura H, Ono M. Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Nature. 1986;319:415-418.

12. Souza LM, Boone TC, Gabrilove J, Lai PH, Zsebo KM, Murdock DC, Chazin VR, Bruszewski J, Lu H, Chen KK, et al. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: effects on normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Science. 1986;232:61-65.

[Page 2791]

Before the purification of individual factors, early sources of CSA included media conditioned by culture with stimulated normal blood or splenic leukocytes, placenta, or certain tumor cells1-5. [...] It was initially unclear whether the complex mixtures termed CSA contained individual factors specific for proliferation and separate factors that specifically induced differentiation. [...] Further investigation showed that many of these biologic activities were attributable to the simultaneous presence of multiple factors in the crude CSA. Purification of the CSFs proved difficult, and, for many factors, expression cloning and production of recombinant protein were required to completely define the unique biologic properties of individual CSFs.

[...] G-CSF was probably first identified as a distinct activity by Burgess and Metcalf, not by its ability to stimulate proliferation, but rather by the capacity of postendotoxin-treated mouse serum or conditioned media to induce differentiation of a murine myelomonocytic leukemia cell line, the differentiation-responsive (D+) subline of WEHI3B cells6,7. Therefore, G-CSF was initiaIly termed a granulocyte-macrophage differentiation factor (GM-DF) by Metcalf’ and was noted to be related to (or the same as) a differentiating activity named MGI-1G by Lotem et al.8 G-CSF was shown to be separate from GM-CSF, which had been partially purified in the late 1970s. This distinction was experimentally determined by the generation of neutralizing antisera that could block the effects of GM-CSF but which failed to block the activity of GM-DF. GM-DF was then shown to copurify with a novel activity that selectively stimulated the formation of granulocytic colonies by normal hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro,’ and after further purification, this factor was ultimately renamed G-CSF.9 Nicola et al9 described the biochemical characteristics of murine G-CSF in 1983 as a hydrophobic glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 24 or 25 Kd, containing a neuraminic acid moiety and at least one internal disulfide bond necessary for biologic activity.

After the identification of the murine G-CSF, a human molecule with analogous activities was discovered. [...] Both the proliferation- and differentiation-inducing activities of the murine and human G-CSF molecules crossed species boundaries, in contrast to other hematopoietic growth factors such as

[Page 2792]

GM-CSF or interleukin-3 (IL-3), which are active on the neutrophilic lineage in a species-specific manner. [...] Nomura et al15 purified native human G-CSF from culture medium conditioned by the tumor cell line CHU-2 and described its properties as a molecule that specifically induced the growth of cells of the neutrophilic granulocyte lineage.15

CLONING OF THE G-CSF GENE

Further understanding of the biologic and biochemical properties of G-CSF was greatly facilitated by cloning of the gene encoding G-CSF and the production of recombinant protein for study.


1. Metcalf D: The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors. Science 229:16, 1985

2. Metcalf D: The molecular control of cell division, differentiation commitment and maturation in haemopoietic cells. Nature 339:27, 1989

3. Sachs L The molecular control of blood cell development. Science 238:1374, 1987

4. Quesenberry P, Levitt L Hematopoietic stem cells. N Engl J Med 301:755,1979

5. Golde D, Cline M: Regulation of granulopoiesis. N Engl J Med 291:1388,1974

6. Burgess A, Metcalf D: Characterization of a serum factor stimulating the differentiation of myelomonocytic leukemia cells. Int J Cancer 26:647,1980

7. Metcalf D: Clonal extinction of myelomonocytic leukemia cells by serum from mice injected with endotoxin. Int J Cancer 25:225,1980

8. Lotem J, Lipton J, Sachs L Separation of different molecular forms of macrophage and granulocyte-inducing proteins for normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Int J Cancer 25:763,1980

9. Nicola NA, Metcalf D, Matsumoto M, Johnson G R Purification of a factor inducing differentiation in murine myelomonocytic leukemia cells. Identification as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. J Biol Chem 258:9017,1983

10. Nicola NA, Begley CG, Metcalf D: Identification of the human analogue of a regulator that induces differentiation in murine leukaemic cells. Nature 314:625,1985

14. Souza LM, Boone TC, Gabrilove J, Lai PH, Zsebo KM, Murdock DC, Chazin VR, Bruszewski J, Lu H, Chen KK, Barendt J, Platzer E, Moore MAS, Mertelsmann R, Welte K Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: Effects on normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Science 232:61,1986

15. Nomura H, Imazeki I, Oheda M, Kubota N, Tamura M, Ono M, Ueyama Y, Asano S: Purification and characterization of human granulocyte colony-stimulating actor (G-CSF). EMBO J 5:871,1986

17. Nagata S, Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Kaziro Y, Yamazaki T, Yamamoto 0, Hirata Y, Kubota N, Oheda M, Nomura H, Ono M: Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Nature 319:415,1986

Anmerkungen

Although in this page all but one sentence has been taken - mostly verbatim - from the source Demetri and Griffin (1991) nothing has been marked as a citation, and the source is only given in passing.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan) Agrippina1

[4.] Arc/Fragment 014 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-26 22:06:17 Schumann
Arc, BauernOpfer, Demetri and Griffin 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 14, Zeilen: 1-14, 17-29
Quelle: Demetri and Griffin 1991
Seite(n): 2792, Zeilen: 2792: left col. 32-35; right col. 17-25.39-43.48-55; 2793: left col. 13-22 - right col. 1-9
[Further understanding of the biological and biochemical properties of G-CSF was greatly facilitated by cloning of the gene encoding G-CSF and the production of] recombinant protein for study11, 12.

Southern blot analysis of genomic human DNA showed that G-CSF is encoded by a single gene11, 13, and further studies determined that this single gene is located on chromosome 17q11-2214, 15. The genomic structure of the human G-CSF gene was determined by Nagata et al13, revealing that G-CSF gene consists of 5 exons spread over a locus of approximately 2.3 kb (Fig. 1). At the 5’-terminus of the second intron, two donor splice sequences are present in the tandem, only 9 bp apart. The localization of human G-CSF on chromosome 17 differs from that of several other human hematopoietic growth factors such as GM-CSF, IL-3, IL-4 and IL-5, which are clustered on the long arm of the chromosome 516. Following the description of the cDNA for human G-CSF, the murine G-CSF was cloned by crosshybridization with a human G-CSF cDNA probe. The murine G-CSF gene is highly homologous with the human gene, with 69% nucleic acid sequence homology in both coding and non-coding regions, and a 73% sequence homology in the predicted amino acid sequence of the protein17.[...]

The human G-CSF gene is distantly related to the IL-6 gene. The number, location and size of the introns and exons that comprise these two genes are similar. Additionally, the amino acid sequences of G-CSF and IL-6 share some localized homology. Between amino acid residues 20 to 85 of G-CSF, the positions of 17 residues match with residues located between positions 28 to 91 of the IL-6 molecule, which yields a sequence homology for this region of 26%3. Additionally, the positions of four cysteine residues are precisely conserved between G-CSF and IL-6 in this region of relative homology. The tertiary structure of G-CSF may be quite similar to that of IL-6, particularly if intra-chain disulfide bridges are similarly located within these molecules. Thus, it is possible that the genes encoding G-CSF and IL-6 may have arisen from a gene duplication event after which they have subsequently diverged. There is no linkage of chromosomal localization between G-CSF and IL-6, because human IL-6 is located at chromosome 7p1519.


3. Demetri GD, Griffin JD. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and its receptor. Blood. 1991;78:2791-2808.

11. Nagata S, Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Kaziro Y, Yamazaki T, Yamamoto O, Hirata Y, Kubota N, Oheda M, Nomura H, Ono M. Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Nature. 1986;319:415-418.

12. Souza LM, Boone TC, Gabrilove J, Lai PH, Zsebo KM, Murdock DC, Chazin VR, Bruszewski J, Lu H, Chen KK, et al. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: effects on normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Science. 1986;232:61-65.

13. Nagata S, Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Yamamoto O, Hirata Y, Kubota N, Oheda M, Nomura H, Yamazaki T. The chromosomal gene structure and two mRNAs for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Embo J. 1986;5:575-581.

14. Le Beau MM, Lemons RS, Carrino JJ, Pettenati MJ, Souza LM, Diaz MO, Rowley JD. Chromosomal localization of the human G-CSF gene to 17q11 proximal to the breakpoint of the t(15;17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Leukemia. 1987;1:795-799.

15. Simmers RN, Webber LM, Shannon MF, Garson OM, Wong G, Vadas MA, Sutherland GR. Localization of the G-CSF gene on chromosome 17 proximal to the breakpoint in the t(15;17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood. 1987;70:330-332.

16. Nicola NA. Hemopoietic cell growth factors and their receptors. Annu Rev Biochem. 1989;58:45-77.

17. Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Kaziro Y, Nagata S. Isolation and characterization of the cDNA for murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:7633-7637.

19. Kishimoto T. The biology of interleukin-6. Blood. 1989;74:1-10.

[Page 2792]

Further understanding of the biologic and biochemical properties of G-CSF was greatly facilitated by cloning of the gene encoding G-CSF and the production of recombinant protein for study. [...]

Southern blot analysis of genomic human DNA showed that human G-CSF is encoded by a single gene,17,18 and further studies determined that this single gene is located on chromosome 17q11-22.20,21 The genomic structure of the human G-CSF gene was determined by Nagata et al.18 The G-CSF gene consists of 5 exons spread over a locus of approximately 2.3 kb. At the 5’-terminus of the second intron, two donor splice sequences are present in tandem, only 9 bp apart. [...]

[...] The localization of human G-CSF on chromosome 17 differs from that of several other human hematopoietic growth factors such as GM-CSF, IL-3, IL-4, and IL-5, which are clustered on the long arm of chromosome 5.22 [...]

Following the description of the cDNA for human G-CSF, the murine G-CSF gene was cloned by crosshybridization with a human G-CSF cDNA probe under low stringency conditions.23 The murine G-CSF gene is highly homologous with the human gene, with 69% nucleic acid sequence homology in both coding and noncoding regions, and a 73% sequence homology in the predicted amino acid sequence of the protein.23

[Page 2793]

The human G-CSF gene is distantly related to the IL-6 gene. The number, location, and size of the introns and exons that comprise these two genes are similar. Additionally, the amino acid sequences of G-CSF and IL-6 share some localized homology. Between amino acid residues 20 to 85 of G-CSF, the positions of 17 residues match with residues located between positions 28 to 91 of the IL-6 molecule, which yields a sequence homology for this region of 26%.26, 27 Additionally, the positions of four cysteine residues are precisely conserved between G-CSF and IL-6 in this region of relative homology. The tertiary structure of G-CSF may be quite similar to that of IL-6, particularly if intrachain disulfide bridges are similarly located within these molecules. Thus, it is possible that the genes encoding G-CSF and IL-6 may have arisen from a gene duplication event from which they have subsequently diverged. There is no linkage of chromosomal localization between G-CSF and IL-6 because the human IL-6 gene is located at chromosome 7p15.28


14. Souza LM, Boone TC, Gabrilove J, Lai PH, Zsebo KM, Murdock DC, Chazin VR, Bruszewski J, Lu H, Chen KK, Barendt J, Platzer E, Moore MAS, Mertelsmann R, Welte K Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: Effects on normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Science 232:61,1986

17. Nagata S, Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Kaziro Y, Yamazaki T, Yamamoto O, Hirata Y, Kubota N, Oheda M, Nomura H, Ono M: Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Nature 319:415,1986

18. Nagata S, Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Yamamoto O, Hirata Y, Kubota N, Oheda M, Nomura H, Yamazaki T: The chromosomal gene structure and two mRNAs for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Embo J 5:575,1986

20. Le Beau M, Lemons R, Carrino J, Pettenati M, Souza L, Diaz M, Rowley J: Chromosomal localization of the human G-CSF gene to 17q11 proximal to the breakpoint of the t(15;17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Leukemia 1:795,1987

21. Simmers RN, Webber LM, Shannon MF, Garson OM, Wong G, Vadas MA, Sutherland GR: Localization of the G-CSF gene on chromosome 17 proximal to the breakpoint in the t(15;17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood 70:330, 1987

22. Nicola N: Hemopoietic cell growth factors and their receptors. Annu Rev Biochem 58:45,1989

23. Tsuchiya M, Asano S, Kaziro Y, Nagata S: Isolation and characterization of the cDNA for murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:7633,1986

26. Hirano T, Yasukawa K, Harada H, Taga T, Watanabe Y, Matsuda T, Kashiwamura S, Nakajima K, Koyama K, Iwamatsu A, Tsunasawa S, Sakiyama F, Matsui H, Takahara Y, Taniguchi T, Kishimoto T Complementary DNA for a novel human interleukin (BSF-2) that induces B lymphocytes to produce immunoglobulin. Nature 32473,1986

27. Kishimoto T: The biology of interleukin-6. Blood 74:1, 1989

28. Sutherland GR, Baker E, Callen DF, Hyland VJ, Wong G, Clark S, Jones SS, Eglinton LK, Shannon MF, Lopez AF, Vadas MA Interleukin 4 is at 5q31 and interleukin 6 is at 7p15. Hum Genet 79:335,1988

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation. The source is only named once, and then only in passing.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[5.] Arc/Fragment 015 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-26 01:59:14 Hindemith
Arc, Demetri and Griffin 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 15, Zeilen: 1-1
Quelle: Demetri and Griffin 1991
Seite(n): 2793, Zeilen: figure
15a diss.png

Fig. 1 – Molecular organization of the gene encoding human G-CSF, structure of the G-CSF RNA transcript, and secondary structure of the native human G-CSF protein.8


8. Nicola NA, Metcalf D, Matsumoto M, Johnson GR. Purification of a factor inducing differentiation in murine myelomonocytic leukemia cells. Identification as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:9017-9023.

15a source.png

Fig 1. Molecular organization of the gene encoding human G-CSF, structure of the G-CSF RNA transcript, and secondary structure of the native human G-CSF protein.

Anmerkungen

The correct source is not given. Neither the image nor the caption can be found in the given source Nicola et al. (1983).

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

Auch bei Fandom

Zufälliges Wiki