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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Mark T. Quinn, Katherine A. Gauss
Titel    Structure and regulation of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase: comparison with nonphagocyte oxidases
Zeitschrift    Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Ausgabe    76
Datum    October 2004
URL    http://www.jleukbio.org/content/76/4/760.full.pdf

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    2


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Arc/Fragment 021 11 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-26 20:44:01 Graf Isolan
Arc, Fragment, Gesichtet, Quinn and Gauss 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Neutrophil granulocytes (a.k.a., polymorphonuclear leukocytes) are normally found circulating in the bloodstream (half-life of ≅7 h) and migrating through tissues (2–3 days), devoting their short lifetime to surveillance55. During an infection, the neutrophil lifespan is increased, and large numbers of neutrophils are rapidly recruited to the site(s) of infection where they function to destroy invading pathogens. In this manner, neutrophils serve as one of the body’s first lines of defence against infection. These cells use an extraordinary array of oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent microbicidal weapons to destroy and remove infectious agents56. Oxygen-dependent mechanisms involve the production of ROS, which can be microbicidal57, and oxygen-independent mechanisms include most other neutrophil functions, such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, degranulation, and release of lytic enzymes and bactericidal peptides56.

55. Steinfeld JL. Principles of Hematology. Cancer Res. 1967;27:208-a-.

56. Witko-Sarsat V, Rieu P, Descamps-Latscha B, Lesavre P, Halbwachs-Mecarelli L. Neutrophils: Molecules, Functions and Pathophysiological Aspects. Lab Invest. 2000;80:617-653.

57. Roos D, Bruggena Rv, Meischl C. Oxidative killing of microbes by neutrophils. Microbes and Infection. 2003;5:1307-1315.

Neutrophils (a.k.a., polymorphonuclear leukocytes) are normally found circulating in the bloodstream (circulating half-life of ~7 h) and migrating through tissues (2–3 days) and devote their short lifetime to surveillance [3]. However, during an infection, the neutrophil lifespan is increased, and large numbers of neutrophils are rapidly recruited to the site(s) of infection where they function to destroy invading pathogens. In this capacity, neutrophils serve as one of the body’s first lines of defense against infection. These cells use an extraordinary array of oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent microbicidal weapons to destroy and remove infectious agents [4]. Oxygen-dependent mechanisms involve the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be microbicidal [5], and oxygen-independent mechanisms include most other neutrophil functions, such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, degranulation, and release of lytic enzymes and bactericidal peptides (reviewed in ref. [4]).

3. Haen, P. J. (1995) Principles of Hematology, Dubuque, IA, Wm. C. Brown.

4. Witko-Sarsat, V., Rieu, P., Descamps-Latscha, B., Lesavre, P., Halbwachs-Mecarelli, L. (2000) Neutrophils: molecules, functions and pathophysiological aspects. Lab. Invest. 80, 617–653.

5. Roos, D., Van Bruggen, R., Meischl, C. (2003) Oxidative killing of microbes by neutrophils. Microbes Infect. 5, 1307–1315.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given here.

Sichter
Graf Isolan

[2.] Arc/Fragment 022 15 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-26 21:34:13 Graf Isolan
Arc, BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Quinn and Gauss 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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In general, the best characterized plasma membrane oxidase is the phagocytic NADPH oxidase, a multicomponent enzyme composed of four oxidase-specific proteins (p22phox, p47phox, p67phox, and gp91phox) and a GTPase (Rac1/2). One other oxidase-specific protein (p40phox) and a second GTPase (Rap1A) have also been shown to play roles in regulating oxidase activity; however, their specific functions are still not well understood60. Originally, the nomenclature for the various components differed throughout the literature (Table 1); however, the generally accepted nomenclature for the phagocyte oxidase specific components now includes the suffix phox, which refers to phagocyte oxidase61. The only one exception is gp91phox, which has also been named NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)62.

60. Quinn MT, Gauss KA. Structure and regulation of the neutrophil respiratory burst oxidase: comparison with nonphagocyte oxidases. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;76:760-781.

61. Babior BM. NADPH oxidase. Current Opinion in Immunology. 2004;16:42-47.

62. Lambeth JD, Cheng G, Arnold RS, Edens WA. Novel homologs of gp91phox. Trends Biochem Sci. 2000;25:459-461.

It is now generally accepted that the core NADPH oxidase enzyme is composed of four oxidase-specific proteins (p22phox, p47phox, p67phox, and gp91phox) and a GTPase (Rac1/2). One other oxidase-specific protein (p40phox) and a second GTPase (Rap1A) have also been shown to play roles in regulating oxidase activity; however, their specific functions are still not well understood. Originally, the nomenclature for the various components differed throughout the literature; however, the generally accepted nomenclature for the phagocyte oxidasespecific components now includes the suffix phox, which refers to phagocyte oxidase [10]. The one exception is gp91phox, which has also been named NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) [11].

10. Babior, B. M. (1991) The respiratory burst oxidase and the molecular basis of chronic granulomatous disease. Am. J. Hematol. 37, 263–266.

11. Lambeth, J. D., Cheng, G., Arnold, R. S., Edens, W. A. (2000) Novel homologs of gp91phox. Trends Biochem. Sci. 25, 459–461.

Anmerkungen

The source is mentioned somewhere in the middle, but it is not clear to the reader that the entire passage is taken from it, including a reference to the literature.

Sichter
(Hindemith), Graf Isolan

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