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Autor     Stephen Maren und Michel Baudry
Titel    Properties and Mechanisms of Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity in the Mammalian Brain: Relationships to Learning and Memory
Zeitschrift    Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Jahr    1995
Nummer    63
Seiten    1-18
URL    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7663875, http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/56210/marenNLM95.pdf?sequence=1

Literaturverz.   

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Fragmente    4


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Br/Fragment 003 02 - Diskussion
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The major forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are regarded as cellular correlates of learning and memory formation. In recent years, an impressive research effort has been devoted to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, particularly LTP. Because both the hippocampus (Zola-Morgan & Squire, 1990) and the cerebellum (Thompson, 1990) are important for various forms of learning and memory in mammals, hippocampal LTP and cerebellar LTD are considered strong candidates for cellular mechanisms of memory formation.

In recent years, an impressive research effort has been devoted to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of various forms of synaptic plasticity, particularly LTP in the hippocampus and LTD in the cerebellum.

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Ohne Hinweis auf eine Übernahme.

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[2.] Br/Fragment 009 09 - Diskussion
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In 1949 Donald Hebb in his book “The Organization of Behavior” proposed that memories are stored in the mammalian brain as stronger synaptic connections between neurons active during learning. The specific mechanism he suggested to bring about these changes in synaptic transmission is relatively simple. In his now classic book, “The Organization of Behavior” (1949), Donald Hebb proposed that memories are stored in the mammalian brain as stronger synaptic connections between neurons active during learning. The specific mechanism he suggested to bring about these changes in synaptic transmission is relatively simple.
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[3.] Br/Fragment 009 19 - Diskussion
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In other words, correlation/or association of pre- and post-synaptic activity in two neurons elicits some change in one or both of the neurons such that the synaptic connection between them is strengthened (Hebb, 1949). These kind of modified synapses are referred as “Hebbian synapses” or “Hebb synapses”. Later this became a theoretical foundation for many neurobiological and computational models of “synaptic plasticity” and has revolutionized thinking about the nature of the neural [mechanisms of learning and memory formation.]

• Hebb DO (1949) The Organization of Behavior, Wiley: New York.

[Seite 1]

In other words, correlation (or association) of pre- and post-synaptic activity in two neurons elicits some change in one or both of the neurons such that the synaptic connection between them is strengthened (Hebb, 1949). We will refer to synapses that are modified in this manner as “Hebbian synapses” or “Hebb synapses.” [...] The importance of Hebb’s contribution in this regard cannot be contested: the Hebb synapse is a construct that has become a theoretical foundation for many neurobiological and computational models of synaptic plasticity and has revolutionized thinking about the nature of the neural mechanisms of learning and memory formation.


Hebb, D. O. (1949). The organization of behavior. New York: Wiley.

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From later studies evidence has emerged, supporting the view that memories are represented as enduring changes in the functional circuitry of the brain and that synaptic contacts between neurons serve as the pliable substrate for “memory traces”.

In 1973 Bliss and his coworkers discovered that brief high-frequency electrical stimulation of perforent pathway can enhance synaptic transmission for days even weeks in the rabbit hippocampus in vivo (Bliss and Lomo, 1973; Bliss and Gardner-Medwin, 1973). This long lasting form of synaptic plasticity is known as long-term potentiation or LTP. [...] LTP is induced by correlated pre- and postsynaptic activity i.e. it is Hebbian and exhibits several basic properties of learning and memory (Bliss and collingridge, 1993; Matthies et al., 1989, 1990; Teyler et al., 1984).

In recent years, an impressive research effort has been devoted to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of various forms of synaptic plasticity, particularly LTP in the hippocampus.


• Bliss TV, Collingridge GL (1993) A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature 361:31-39.

• Bliss TV, Gardner-Medwin AR (1971) Long-lasting increases of synaptic influence in the unanesthetized hippocampus. J Physiol 216:32P-33P.

• Bliss TV, Gardner-Medwin AR (1973) Long-lasting increases of synaptic influence in the unanesthetized hippocampus. J Physiol 216:32-33.

• Bliss TV, Lomo T (1973) Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. J Physiol 232:357-374.

• Matthies H (1989) In search of cellular mechanism of memory. Prog. Neurobiol 32:277.

• Matthies H, Frey U, Reymann K, Krug M, Jork R, Schroeder H (1990) Different mechanisms and multiple stages of LTP. Adv Exp Med Biol 268:359-68.

• Teyler TJ, Discenna P (1984) Long-term potentiation as a candidate mnemonic device. Brain Research 319:15-28.

[Seite 1]

In the years since the publication of Hebb’s book, a growing body of evidence has emerged supporting the view that memories are represented as enduring changes in the functional circuitry of the brain and that synaptic contacts between neurons serve as the pliable substrate for “memory traces.” Perhaps most important in this regard was the discovery by Bliss, Gardner-Medwin, and Lomo in 1973 of a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy following electrical stimulation of the rabbit hippocampus (Bliss & Gardner-Medwin, 1973; Bliss & Lomo, 1973). This

[Seite 2]

form of long-term synaptic plasticity, known as long-term potentiation or LTP, is induced by correlated pre- and postsynaptic activity (i.e., it is Hebbian) and exhibits several properties typical of learning and memory (for reviews see Bliss & Collingridge, 1993, and Teyler & DiScenna, 1984). [...]

In recent years, an impressive research effort has been devoted to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of various forms of synaptic plasticity, particularly LTP in the hippocampus and LTD in the cerebellum.


Bliss, T. V. P., & Gardner-Medwin, A. R. (1973). Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the unanesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. Journal of Physiology (London), 232, 357-374.

Bliss, T. V. P., & Collingridge, G. L. (1993). A synaptic model of memory: Long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature (London), 361, 31-39.

Bliss, T. V. P., & Lamo, WT. (1973). Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. Journal of Physiology (London), 232, 331-356.

Teyler, T. J., & DiScenna, P. (1984). Long-term potentiation as a candidate mnemonic device. Brain Research, 319, 15-28.

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(Bliss and Gardner-Medwin, 1973) wird bei Br falsch aufgelöst, vgl. dort auch (Bliss and Gardner-Medwin, 1971).

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