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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Aziza El Harrak
Titel    Pharmacological investigation of spreading depression propagation in rat neocortical tissues
Ort    Münster
Jahr    2009
Anmerkung    Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des doctor medicinae dentium der Medizinischen Fakultät der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster
URL    http://miami1.uni-muenster.de/servlets/DocumentServlet?id=5045

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    4


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Clm/Fragment 014 14 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-09 21:10:50 Singulus
Clm, El Harrak 2009, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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CSD is an "all-or-none" process and spreads in the manner of a wave through gray matter. CSD appears first at the stimulated site and propagate in all directions at the velocity of 2–3 mm/min, so that increasingly distant areas undergo successively a similar temporary depression. An important characteristic feature of CSD is a propagating negative potential with amplitude of 10–30 mV and duration of more than 30 sec, which may be preceded or succeeded by a positive fluctuation of variable amplitude and duration (figure 2). SD is an "all-or-none" type process and propagates in the manner of a wave through gray matter. SD appears first at the stimulated site and spreads out in all directions at the velocity of 2–3 mm/min, so that increasingly distant areas undergo successively a similar temporary depression. A crucial manifestation of SD is a propagating negative potential with amplitude of 10–30 mV and duration of more than 30 sec, which may be preceded or succeeded by a positive fluctuation of variable amplitude and duration (Figure 1).
Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[2.] Clm/Fragment 015 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-09 18:17:22 Singulus
Clm, El Harrak 2009, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Mechanical stimulation, for example, by stroking of the cortical surface with a blunt instrument, a falling weight or even lightly tapping the cortex also initiates SD (Leao [sic], 1944). More recent studies have achieved more reliable and reproducible induction of CSD by rapidly inserting and retracting hypodermic steel needles (Kaube and Goadsby, 1994; Lambert et al., 1999; Ebersberger et al., 2001). However, one of the most common models of SD initiation is KCl application to the neuronal tissues (Wernsmann et al., 2006; Dehbandi et al., 2008). This model has been proven to be the most reliable stimulus leading to reproducible events on earlier investigations (Martins-Ferreira et al., 2000; Bradley et al., 2001). Changes in extracellular K+ concentration might be involved in such pathophysiological processes in human brain tissue (Mayevsky et al., 1996; Nicholson & Sykova, 1998). Mechanical stimulation, for example, by stroking of the cortical surface with a blunt instrument, a falling weight or even lightly tapping the cortex also initiates SD (Lea˜o [sic], 1944). More recent studies have achieved more reliable and reproducible induction of SD by rapidly inserting and retracting hypodermic steel needles (Lambert et al., 1999; Ebersberger et al., 2001). However, the most common models of SD initiation is KCl application (Wernsmann et al., 2006; Dehbandi et al., 2008). This model has been shown to be the most reliable stimulus leading to reproducible events on earlier occasions in both non-imaging and imaging studies (Bradley et al., 2001). In any case, changes in extracellular K+ concentration themselves might be involved in such pathophysiological processes in human brain tissue (Mayevsky et al., 1996; Nicholson and Sykova, 1998).
Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[3.] Clm/Fragment 016 05 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-09 17:28:59 Singulus
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Figure 2. Vertical propagation of a negative DC-potential wave after injection of KCl in a neocortical slice. Injection of KCl solution (3 M) via a microelectrode elicited spreading depression-like fluctuation during superfusion with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Injecting and recording electrodes arranged as shown. Voltage variations were recorded simultaneously by four electrodes (DC1–DC4) which set apart by 1 mm (Adopted from Gorji et al., 2001).

16a source Clm.png

Figure 1. Vertical propagation of a negative DC-potential wave after injection of KCl in a neocortical slice. Injection of KCl solution (3 M) via a microelectrode elicited spreading depression-like fluctuation during superfusion with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Injecting and recording electrodes arranged as shown. Voltage variations were recorded simultaneously by four electrodes (DC1–DC4) which set apart by 1 mm (Adopted from Gorji et al., 2001).

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Note that in Gorji et al. (2001) one finds the lower part of the illustration (without the three drawings of the brain) and a very similar, but not identical figure caption.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Singulus

[4.] Clm/Fragment 017 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-05-09 17:34:10 Singulus
Clm, El Harrak 2009, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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There are evidences to suggest that CSD plays an important role in different neurological disorders (Gorji, 2001; Somjen, 2001). Subdural recordings in patients demonstrated that CSD is involved in various disorders associated with acute neuronal injury including traumatic and spontaneous intra-cerebral hemorrhage (Strong et al., 2002; Fabricius et al., 2008) as well as subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke and contribute to tissue damage. Furthermore, propagation of a CSD wave in human neocortical tissues has been shown to generate aura symptoms in patients suffering from migraine attacks (Hadjikhani et al. 2001). There is sufficient evidence to admit the SD plays an important role in different neurological disorders (Gorji, 2001; Somjen, 2001). Subdural recordings in patients demonstrated that SD is critically involved in various disorders associated with acute neuronal injury including traumatic and spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (Strong et al., 2002; Fabricius et al., 2008) as well as subarachnoid haemorrhage and ischaemic stroke and contribute to tissue damage. Furthermore, propagation of a SD-like phenomenon in human neocortical tissues has been shown to generate aura symptoms in migrainous patients (Hadjikhani et al. 2001).
Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Singulus

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