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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Raquel Fernández
Titel    Women,Work, and Culture
Sammlung    CEPR Discussion Papers, number 6153.
Herausgeber    Centre for Economic Policy Research
Ort    London
Jahr    2006
URL    https://files.nyu.edu/rf2/public/Research/marshallpaperfinalfinal.pdf

Literaturverz.   

ja
Fragmente    4


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Cs/Fragment 001 08 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-07 10:04:43 Kybot
Cs, Fernandez 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Hindemith, WiseWoman
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Seite: 1, Zeilen: 8-24
Quelle: Fernandez 2006
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Does culture influence economic results? At some vague level, most economists would probably agree that preferences and beliefs, the basis of the definition culture, are endogenous and hence likely to vary across environments. Whether culture plays a quantitatively important role in explaining economic outcomes, however is another question and I think that in this point economists would tend to be sceptical. This scepticism results largely from the absence of rigorous empirical work linking culture and economics. When faced with variation in economic outcomes, across countries or individuals, the traditional strategy has been to explain this variation with differences in policies, institutions, and technology. The distribution of agents, preferences and beliefs is taken as given and invariant to the environment in this case. In fact, up until about the end of the 1990´s, the role of culture in explaining economic phenomena has been largely ignored by academics. At the end of the 1970´s the noble prize winners Stigler and Gary even claimed that “economists who argue with cultural factors are just trying to cover up the failures of their analysis”.[FN 1] To explain variation in outcomes with differences in beliefs or preferences was regarded by many academics as unscientific.

This attitude has however changed in the past decade and a new body of work has emerged that attempts to provide evidence on the effect of culture on economic outcomes.

[FN 1: Stigler/Becker (1977), pp. 76.]

Do we believe that culture matters to economic outcomes? I think that, at some vague level, most economists would probably agree that preferences and beliefs are endogenous and hence likely to vary across environments. Whether culture plays a quantitatively important role in explaining economic outcomes, however, is another question and here I think that, overall, economists would tend to be skeptical. This skepticism stems, in large part, from the absence of rigorous empirical work linking culture and economics. In fact, until fairly recently, the role of culture in explaining economic phenomena has been largely ignored by modern economics. When faced with variation in economic outcomes, across countries or individuals, the traditional strategy has been to explain this variation with differences in policies, institutions, and technology. In such an exercise, the distributions of agents’ preferences and beliefs are taken as given (except in a rational expectations sense) and invariant to the environment. To seek to explain variation in outcomes with differences in beliefs or preferences is seen as unscientific. [FN 2] [...]

Over the last few years a new body of work has emerged that has attempted to provide evidence on the effect of culture on economic outcomes.

[FN 2: The Stigler-Becker (1977) dictum—“de gustibus non est disputandum”—has in this sense cast a long shadow in economics.]

Anmerkungen

Almost literal copy from the source without referencing it. The author adapts slightly by a) changing the position of one sentence in the text, b) adding a quote of Stiegler and Gary and c) producing a mistake that distorts the original meaning ("the distributions of agents’ preferences and beliefs" --> " The distribution of agents, preferences and beliefs"). The author inserts a phrase about Stigler and Gary, calling them "noble prize winners" --> "Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureates" would be correct. The quotation attributed to Stigler and Gary is not found in the source given [1] (Reprint with different pagination)

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[2.] Cs/Fragment 002 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-07 10:04:45 Kybot
Cs, Fernandez 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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The evidence of the influence culture on economics is of varying quality and has been conducted with various methodologies, and on a diverse set of questions. It ranges from the relationship of trust with outcomes such as trade (Guiso, Sapienza and Zingales (2005) [FN 3] or trade union membership (Algan and Cahuc (2006a)) [FN 4], to the relationship of culture to effort (Ichino and Maggi (2000) [FN 5], the links between religion and growth (Barro and McCeary (2003) [FN 6], Tabellini (2005) [FN 7], as well as historical work on culture and institutions (Greif (1994, 2005)) [FN 8] or Jewish culture and occupational choice (Botticini and Eckstein (2005)) [FN 9].

[FN 3: Gusio/Sapienza/Zingales (2006), pp. 23.]

[FN 4: Algan/Cahuc (2006a), p 715.]

[FN 5: Ichino/Maggi (2000), p. 1057.]

[FN 6: Barro/McCleary (2003), p. 760.]

[FN 7: Tabellini (2005), pp. 15.]

[FN 8: Greif (1994), p. 912, Greif (2005), pp. 7.]

[FN 9: Botticini/Eckstein (2005), p. 930.]

This evidence is of varying quality, conducted with various methodologies, and on a diverse set of questions. It ranges from the relationship of trust with outcomes such as trade (Guiso, Sapienza and Zingales (2005)) or trade union membership (Algan and Cahuc (2006a)), to the relationship of culture to effort (Ichino and Maggi (2000)) and living arrangments (Giuliano (2007)), the links between religion and growth (Barro and McLeary (2003), Tabellini (2005)), as well as historical work on culture and institutions (Greif (1994, 2005)) or Jewish culture and occupational choice (Botticini and Eckstein (2005)).
Anmerkungen

The contribution of the author to this text fragment is limited to adding made-up page numbers to the referenced publications; correcting one author's name (McCleary instead of McLeary) in the footnote, but spelling it McCeary in the text; and dropping the reference about living arrangements. The plethora of references are, however, not given in the bibliography. For example, "Algan/Cahuc (2006a)" is given in Fernandez as a working paper - the reference above (Akerlof/Kranton) begins on page 715. For most of the other references, the first page given by Fernandez is the page.

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[3.] Cs/Fragment 122 07 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-07 10:06:47 Kybot
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One of the main problems when analysing culture and its effects on business outcomes is to isolate its influence from those due to purely economic variables for example the economic position, capital markets, investment etc. The new literature, referred to in Chapter 1 has tried to solve this problem in different ways. For example Botticini and Eckstein (2005)[FN 113 [sic!]] have used case studies. Another approach is to use attitudinal surveys to explain cross-country outcomes. However, the problem here is that variation in how individuals across countries answer these survey questions may reflect as much economic factors as they do cultural differences. [FN 2]

[FN 1: cf. Botticini/Eckstein (2005), pp. 922]

[FN 2: cf. Fernandez (2006) p.4.]

The main problem faced in any analysis of culture and its effects on economic

outcomes is to isolate its influence from those due to purely economic variables (prices, income, etc.). [...] The new literature in this field has met this challenge in different ways. Case studies (e.g. Botticini and Eckstein (2005)) are one direction. Using answers to attitudinal surveys to explain cross-country outcomes is another approach. In that case, however, the problem is that variation in how individuals across countries answer these survey questions may reflect as much economic factors as they do cultural differences.

Anmerkungen

The source is referenced, but quotation marks are missing such that the reader is left in the dark as to how much text has been copied and how little it has been adapted.

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[4.] Cs/Fragment 176 08 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-07 10:06:49 Kybot
Cs, Fernandez 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Quelle: Fernandez 2006
Seite(n): 5, Zeilen: 13-19, 21-23
However the epidemiological strategy chosen does have some limitations, which may influence the quality of the results. Non-German managers may be subject to shocks (language, discrimination), which could make them deviate from their traditional behaviour. Furthermore, culture is socially constructed: to be replicated, the behaviour may require the incentives provided by larger social body such as their corporate environment. Furthermore, expatriates working abroad may not necessarily be a representative sample of their homecountry’s population. Finally, as time passes the non-German managers will assimilate to the German culture and the force of the original culture will be weakened. The epidemiological strategy has its own set of problems. Immigrants may be subject to many shocks (language, discrimination, greater uncertainty, etc.) which could cause them to deviate from their traditional behavior. Culture, furthermore, is socially constructed: to be replicated, the behavior may require the incentives provided by a larger social body such as a neighborhood, school, or ethnic network. Furthermore, immigrants are unlikely to be a representative sample of their home-country’s population. [...] Lastly, over time, assimilation to the dominant culture will presumably weaken the force of the original culture.
Anmerkungen

The text fragment has been adapted: The more general theory found in the source is made specific to the case of expatriate workers working in Germany. The source is not referenced. Since this is a half page, it is more than 50%.

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