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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Betty Jane Punnett
Titel    International Perspectives on Organizational behavior and Human Resource Management
Ort    New York
Verlag    M.E.Sharpe
Jahr    2004
ISBN    0-7656-1057-4

Literaturverz.   

nein
Fragmente    7


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Cs/Fragment 057 03 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-07 10:04:53 Kybot
Cs, Fragment, Gesichtet, Punnett 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Seite: 57, Zeilen: 3, 5-8, 102-103
Quelle: Punnett 2004
Seite(n): 21, Zeilen: 6-8, 9-12, 15
Values

[...] They are defined as enduring beliefs that result in specific modes of conduct.[FN 13] A value system is regarded as a relatively permanent perceptual framework, which influences an individual’s behaviour[FN 14] although it is societal. Values establish the standards by which the importance of everything in society is judged.

[FN 13: Rokeach (1973), p. 10.] [FN 14: England (1978), p. 36.]

Values

Values have been described as enduring beliefs that specific modes of conduct [...] (Rokeach 1973); a value system is seen as a relatively permanent perceptual framework that influences an individual's behavior (England 1978). Values establish the standards by which the importance of everything in society is judged. [...]

In a general sense, values and norms are societal, [...]

Anmerkungen

Paragraph seems to be correctly collected from several sources. In truth, it has been taken completely word-for-word from one source together with footnotes.

Sichter
Drhchc

[2.] Cs/Fragment 057 20 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-07 10:04:57 Kybot
Cs, Fragment, Gesichtet, Punnett 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Quelle: Punnett 2004
Seite(n): 22, Zeilen: 11-22
Attitudes

Attitudes may result in a tendency to react favourably for unfavourably to objects or situations, based on beliefs about them. Attitudes are influenced by societal values. For example in a business environment the style in dress can provoke certain attitudes depending on the societal values. If wearing a suit and tie indicates a conservative business perspective and conservatism is valued, this would result in a favourable attitude to someone dressed in this manner. Elsewhere, where innovation in business is more highly valued, and wearing a T-shirt and jeans is seen as indicating an innovative attitude and this attire may be viewed [positively.]

Attitudes

Attitudes are described as a tendency to respond favorably or unfavorably to objects or situations based on beliefs about them. Societal values influence what we respond favorably to and what we view with disfavor.

In a business setting, dress can mean quite different things depending on what the society values and how different types of dress are interpreted. If wearing a suit and tie indicates a conservative business perspective and conservatism is valued, this would result in a favorable attitude to someone in this attire. Elsewhere, if innovation in business was more highly valued, and wearing a brightly colored t-shirt and jeans was seen as indicating an innovative perspective, this might be viewed positively.

Anmerkungen

No reference for this paragraph has been given, but obviously it is from an outside source. Citations not marked as such.

Sichter
Hindemith

[3.] Cs/Fragment 058 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-06 19:46:29 Kybot
Cs, Fragment, Gesichtet, Punnett 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Quelle: Punnett 2004
Seite(n): 22, Zeilen: 22-23
Similarly, in some societies men with long hair are regarded negatively, while in others long hair represents virtue. Similarly, in some societies males with long hair are seen negatively, while in others long hair represents virtue.
Anmerkungen

Continuation from previous page.

Sichter
Hindemith

[4.] Cs/Fragment 058 22 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-06 19:46:31 Kybot
Cs, Fragment, Gesichtet, Punnett 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Seite(n): 19, Zeilen: 33-36
• Culture can be learned – this does not mean that it is innate; people are socialised from childhood to learn the rules and norms of their culture. It also means that when one leaves one culture for another it is possible to learn the new culture. • Culture is learned — this means that it is not innate; people are socialized from childhood to learn the rules and norms of their culture. It also means that when one goes to another culture, it is possible to learn the new culture.
Anmerkungen

Paragraph is not marked as a citation although again there is a very high percentage of agreement with an older text. Note that the same text as found in the source, can also be found in the textbook Global management 1995 on page 71, line 22-24. Punnett has been a Co-author of this book. Note also that the author states before the list of bullet points, on page 58 of the thesis: "Keller and Drepper have attempted to develop a systematic approach to culture and examined the literature analysis carried out by Kluckhohn and Kroeber and have derived the following characteristics: [FN 17: Keller, v. E. (1982), p. 114.]". Keller (1982) has not been checked, but as no direct quote is marked in the thesis, there is no doubt about the plagiarism-status of this text fragment.

Sichter
Hindemith

[5.] Cs/Fragment 069 05 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-07 10:05:07 Kybot
Cs, Fragment, Gesichtet, Punnett 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Seite(n): 23-24, Zeilen: S.23, 16-19.20-21.24-28.29-33 - S.24, 1-
4.4.3 Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Value Orientation Model

Two anthropologists, Kluckholm and Strodtbeck explained cultural similarities and dissimilarities in terms of basic problems which all human societies face.[FN 49] Different ways of dealing with these problems show different cultures. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck identified the following five problem areas:

Relationship to nature – subjugation, harmony and mastery

Societies view themselves as inferior to nature and are not masters of their own destinies; and are not able to influence it. Societies, which view themselves as living in harmony with nature, believe that people must change their behaviour according to nature. Societies that view themselves as able to master nature think in terms of the supremacy of the human race, and think that they can manipulate nature for their own purposes.

Time orientation – past, present and future

Societies, which are orientated towards the past, look for answers in the past. How would their ancestors have solved the problem they are confronted with? Societies, which are present-orientated, consider the immediate effects of their actions; what is the consequence if I do the following? Societies, which are future-orientated, look to the long-term results of events today; what will happen to future generations if we do these things today?

Basic human nature – evil, good, mixed

Societies, which believe that individuals are primarily evil, try to control behaviour by implementing specific codes of conduct. Individuals that do not comply with these rules will be punished. Societies that believe that people are essentially good show trust and generally rely on verbal agreements. Societies that see people as mixed probably also see people as changeable and would focus on means to control behaviour, encourage desired behaviour and discourage undesirable behaviour.

[FN 49: Kluckhohn/Strodtbeck, (1961), p. 20.]

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's Value Orientation Model

The anthropologists Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) explained cultural similarities and differences in terms of basic problems that all human societies face. [...] different societies adopt different solutions. [...]

Consider the various solutions that societies have developed for the five problem areas identified by these two anthropologists.

Relationship to Nature: Subjugation, Harmony, and Mastery

Societies that view themselves as subjugated to nature view life as essentially preordained; people are not masters of their own destinies [...]. Societies that view themselves as living in harmony with nature believe that people must alter their behavior to accommodate nature. Societies that view themselves as able to master nature think in terms of the supremacy of the human race and harnessing the forces of nature.

Time Orientation: Past, Present, and Future

Societies that are oriented toward the past look for solutions in the past: What would our forefathers have done? Societies that are present-oriented consider the immediate effects of their actions: What will happen if I do this? Societies that are future-oriented look to the long-term results of today's events: What will happen to future generations if we do these things today?

Basic Human Nature: Evil or Good, Changeable

Societies that believe that people are primarily evil focus on controlling the behavior of people through specified codes of conduct and sanctions for wrongdoing. Societies that believe that people are essentially good exhibit trust and rely on verbal agreements. Societies that see people as changeable and capable of both good and evil focus on means to modify behavior, encourage desired behavior, and discourage behaviors that are not desirable.

Anmerkungen

Slight variations from the source - which in no way enhance the original - one misleading footnote, no reference given. Note that a very similar text can also be found in the textbook Global management (1995) (Page 301-303), B. Punnett is a co-author of this book, which might well have been the actual source for Cs.

Sichter
Hindemith

[6.] Cs/Fragment 070 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-07 10:05:09 Kybot
Cs, Fragment, Gesichtet, Punnett 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Activity orientation – being, containing and controlling, doing

Societies, which are primarily „being“, are emotional and the individuals act spontaneously according to their mood. Those, which are „doing“ orientated, are constantly striving to achieve. The people are ambitious and enjoy accomplish difficult tasks. Societies that are containing and controlling focus on moderation and orderliness. People try to achieve a balance in life and in society.

Human relationships – individual, lineal, co-lineal

Societies, which are primarily individual, believe that people should be independent and are responsible for their own actions. Those that are lineal are family orientated and accept hierarchies. Those that are co-lineal are group-orientated and emphasize group interactions and actions.

Activity Orientation: Being, Doing, Containing, and Controlling

Societies that are primarily "being"-oriented are emotional; people react spontaneously based on what they feel at the time. Those that are "doing"-oriented are constantly striving to achieve; people are driven by a need to accomplish difficult tasks. Those that are concerned with containing and controlling focus on moderation and orderliness; people seek to achieve a balance in life and in society.

Human Relationships: Individualistic, Lineal, Co-Lineal

Societies that are primarily individualistic believe that individuals should be independent and take responsibility for their own actions, Those that are lineal are concerned with the family line and the power structure that underlies a hierarchy. Those that are co-lineal are group-oriented and emphasize group interactions and actions.

Anmerkungen

Continuation from the previous page. Again she introduces slight changes (to the worse).<br/> By the way: Punnett has made a counting error, because she said that she wanted to consider "five problem areas", but then went on to present six. Cs fixes this error by just leaving out the last area "Space: Private, Public". Note that a very similar text can also be found in the textbook Global management (1995) (Page 301-303), B. Punnett is a co-author of this book, which might well have been the actual source for Cs.

Sichter
Hindemith

[7.] Cs/Fragment 070 12 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2012-04-07 10:05:11 Kybot
Cs, Fragment, Gesichtet, Punnett 2004, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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The dimensions may have the following implications for management.

1. In a society that believes humans are subjugated by nature, planning is less effective because the future is preordained.

2. In a society that is present-orientated, rewards should be linked to present performance.

3. Societies that believe in the basic goodness of humans will generally work with the participative management approach

4. In a society that is primarily being-orientated, decisions are likely to be intuitive and less logical.

5. In a society that is hierarchical, the corporate structure might reflect this formal, authority-based hierarchy.

The following suggestions illustrate how these orientations may be related to management.

1. In a society that believes humans are subjugated by nature, planning would be futile, because the future is preordained.

2. In a society that is present-oriented, rewards would be closely tied to current performance.

3. In a society that believes in the basic goodness of human beings, participative management is likely to be the normal approach.

4. In a society that is primarily being-oriented, decisions are likely to be intuitive with less concern for logic.

5. In a society that is hierarchical, organization structures are likely to reflect this in formal, authority-based hierarchy.

Anmerkungen

The "unfriendly take-over" from Punnett continues: Cs is still showing no signs of giving away the real author.

Sichter
Hindemith

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