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Titel    Protein Kinases
Herausgeber    Kinexus Bioinformatics Corp
Datum    5. September 2006
URL    https://web.archive.org/web/20060905035307/http://www.kinexus.ca/kinases.htm

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    2


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Dsa/Fragment 017 16 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-08-02 19:33:58 WiseWoman
Dsa, Fragment, Gesichtet, Kinexus 2006, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Hindemith
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 17, Zeilen: 16-23, 25-45
Quelle: Kinexus 2006
Seite(n): 1 (online source), Zeilen: -
Approximately fifty of the hundred or so known genes that have been directly linked to induction of cancer (i.e. oncogenes) encode protein kinases. The remainder of the oncogenes specify proteins that either activate kinases or are phosphorylated by kinases. Although the findings are less direct, aberrant cell signalling through protein kinases has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammation, arthritis and other immune disorders, and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Over 400 human diseases have been connected to protein kinases. [...]

With the sequencing of the complete human genome, it is now possible to identify all the related genes within distinct families. It is most efficient if a company can develop expertise around a single family of highly similar proteins. Lessons learned from one family member are most rapidly transferable to related proteins. Protein kinases are the largest family of related genes identified so far that encode enzymes with measurable catalytic activities that are suitable to screen for inhibitory drugs.

Protein kinases are amongst the most meticulously investigated enzymes by researchers. There is a wealth of data about these enzymes that already serves as a solid foundation from which to build. The primary structures of over 500 human protein kinases are already known and the three-dimensional structures of many different protein kinases have been elucidated. Extensive artificial mutagenesis of several protein kinases has been performed to establish detailed structure-function relationships. After the proteases, protein kinases represent the most attractive candidates for molecular modelling studies to design new drugs.

It is estimated that over 25% of the drug discovery efforts in pharmaceutical and biotech companies are focused on protein kinase inhibitors. These drugs have demonstrated applications for treatment of a wide range of diseases including cancer, inflammation, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and neurological damage. Over 60 protein kinase inhibitors are currently in advanced clinical trials, and three are now available in the market place (Herceptin, Gleevec, and Ireesa). The pharmaceutical industry has clearly come to fully recognize the therapeutic potential of protein kinase inhibitors.

Approximately fifty of the hundred or so known genes that have been directly linked to induction of cancer (i.e. oncogenes) encode protein kinases. The remainder of the oncogenes specify proteins that either activate kinases or are phosphorylated by kinases. Although the findings are less direct, aberrant cell signalling through protein kinases has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammation, arthritis and other immune disorders, and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Over 400 human diseases have been connected to protein kinases.

[...]

With the sequencing of the complete human genome, it is now possible to identify all the related genes within distinct families. It is most efficient if a company can develop expertise around a single family of highly similar proteins. Lessons learned from one family member is most rapidly transferable to related proteins. Protein kinases are the largest family of related genes identified so far that encode enzymes with measurable catalytic activities that are suitable to screen for inhibitory drugs.

Protein kinases are amongst the most meticulously investigated enzymes by researchers. There is a wealth of data about these enzymes that already serves as a solid foundation from which to build. The primary structures of over 510 human protein kinases are already known and the three-dimensional structures of many different protein kinases have been elucidated. Extensive artificial mutagenesis of several protein kinases has been performed to establish detailed structure-function relationships. After the proteases, protein kinases represent the most attractive candidates for molecular modelling studies to design new drugs.

[...]

It is estimated that over 25% of the drug discovery efforts in pharmaceutical and biotech companies are focused on protein kinase inhibitors. These drugs have demonstrated applications for treatment of a wide range of diseases including cancer, inflammation, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and neurological damage. Over 60 protein kinase inhibitors are currently in advanced clinical trials, and three are now available in the market place (Herceptin, Gleevec, and Ireesa). The pharmaceutical industry has clearly come to fully recognize the therapeutic potential of protein kinase inhibitors.

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Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman

[2.] Dsa/Fragment 018 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-08-02 19:29:20 WiseWoman
Dsa, Fragment, Gesichtet, Kinexus 2006, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Quelle: Kinexus 2006
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In the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, protein kinases represent the largest family of related genes (121 out of 6144 yeast genes encode protein kinases). Many of these kinase genes have mammalian counterparts that will substitute for them in genetically re-engineered yeast. In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, 319 of its 13338 genes encode protein kinases. In the worm C. elegans, 437 of its 18266 genes specify protein kinases. For all of these organisms, this translates to approximately 2% of the total genes corresponding to protein kinases. Recently, the complete genome of the mustard plant Arabidopsis thaliana was reported and it features 1049 putative protein kinases out of 25706 genes. This represented about 4% of that plant's genome. The human genome appears to encode 500 protein kinases in addition to many pseudo-protein kinase genes, and these have been sub classified into over 57 families. There may well be additional protein kinases that remain to be identified. Protein kinases are readily recognized, because they feature characteristic amino acid sequences that distinguish these enzymes from other proteins. In the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, protein kinases represent the largest family of related genes (121 out of 6,144 yeast genes encode protein kinases). Many of these kinase genes have mammalian counterparts that will substitute for them in genetically re-engineered yeast. In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, 319 of its 13,338 genes encode protein kinases. In the worm C. elegans, 437 of its 18,266 genes specify protein kinases. For all of these organisms, this translates to approximately 2% of the total genes corresponding to protein kinases. Recently, the complete genome of the mustard plant Arabidopsis thal [sic] was reported, and it features 1049 putative protein kinases out of 25,706 genes. This represented about 4% of that plant's genome. The human genome appears to encode 510 protein kinases in addition to many pseudo-protein kinase genes, and these have been subclassified into over 57 families. There may well be additional protein kinases that remain to be identified. Protein kinases are readily recognized, because they feature characteristic amino acid sequences that distinguish these enzymes from other proteins.
Anmerkungen

No source is given.

Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman

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