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Autor     Terry D. Adams
Titel    South Caspian Oil and Gas; A Problem or a Solution?
Sammlung    Promoting Institutional Responses to the Challenges in the Caucasus: The OSCE, UN, EU and the CIS: Analyses—Case Studies—Outlooks. Favorita Papers
Jahr    2001
Jahrgang    2001
Nummer    01
Seiten    46-54
URL    http://www.bundesheer.at/pdf_pool/publikationen/16_ipa_2001.pdf
Fragmente    2


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Gd/Fragment 022 22 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2016-03-15 15:03:40 Klgn
Adams 2001, Fragment, Gd, KeineWertung, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, ZuSichten

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 022, Zeilen: 22-32
Quelle: Adams 2001
Seite(n): 47, 48, Zeilen: 08-16, 24-26, 1-4
In the 20th century Baku Oil has had a disproportionate influence on world affairs that continues to today. “Blood, Oil and Politics” are the stuff of contemporary Caucasian history.17

Adams indicates that by 1900, Baku oil production led the world. Under the remarkable leadership of the Nobels and the Rothchilds, it was a centre of technical innovation and global finance. But, Baku was also a centre of conspicuous consumption, which very publicly displayed the worst aspects of unconstrained Capitalism. Baku oil then became a key strategic target for Germany and turkey in their attempts to fuel their war efforts in the World War I. After the war Britain took control of the oil. Caucasian leaders used Baku oil as a political lever to the West in their attempts to secure


17 Diplomatische Akademie Wien – Promoting institutional responses to the challenges in the Caucasus. Favorita Papers 2001. p.46

There are many lessons to be learned from the tumultuous history of Baku Oil. In fact it

would seem that Baku Oil in the 20th century has had a disproportionate influence on World Affairs, that continues to today. ”Blood, Oil and Politics” are the stuff of contemporary Caucasian history; and the current challenge is how to create a lasting Peace within this volatile region. By 1900 Baku oil production led the world. Under the remarkable leadership of the Nobels and the Rothchilds it was a centre of technical innovation and global finance. But Baku was also a centre of conspicuous consumption, which very publicly displayed the worst aspects of unconstrained Capitalism. It was a time of social deprivation and exploitation of the Baku oil workers that inevitably created a fertile breeding ground for Bolshevism in the Caucasus. In 1903 a young ex- Georgian priest by the name of Joseph Stalin earned his spurs in the successful organisation of Baku and Tblisi Labour, in their fight against the oil owners. At the same time the imperial politics of Russia inflamed the ethnic conflicts of the Caucasus, between the richer Christian Armenians, and the poorer Muslim workers. The ethnic massacres in Baku of 1905, 1908 and 1918 are as alive today as they were 90 years or so ago. Baku Oil then became a key strategic target for Germany and Turkey in their attempts to fuel their war effort in the First World War. The Western Allies recognised the threat and responded accordingly. With the collapse of war in 1918 Britain took control of Baku Oil.

[S. 48]

But the Caucasian leaders themselves were ill prepared for their newly found independence from Russia. Nevertheless they still used Baku Oil as a political lever with the West, in their attempts to secure their fragile independence.

Anmerkungen

Angesichts der Nennung des Autoren und der Quelle in Anm. 17 kann das Fragement als KW eingestuft werden.

Sichter

[2.] Gd/Fragment 023 01 - Diskussion
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Adams 2001, Fragment, Gd, KeineWertung, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, ZuSichten

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their fragile independence in 1918. Unfortunately, in 1919 Lord Curzon in London and President Wilson in Washington decided jointly that the security of the Caucasus was not worthy of the costs involved; consequently, the Bolsheviks occupied the Caucasus and Baku Oil fell under Soviet control for the next 70 years.18 It is an interesting fact, which indicates that the Caucasus was a subject of politico-economic calculations and a concern of USA-Europe vs. Russia in the past as it is today.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Baku Oil has got a huge importance and was to be used as the key political weapon in Caucasian foreign policies, since, as Adams underlines, Caspian oil and gas is the only hope for the region’s economic renewal. The Caspian is important because it is one of the world’s major producing areas in which actual oil production remains essentially in the hands of market-oriented international energy companies. Its particular importance to Europe is that the most of the additional Caspian oil and gas output is to move westwards to European and Mediterranean markets, although some oil will move by tankers to the giant US East Coast market. Besides, Adams declares that the South Caspian area suffers from an excess of gas reserves and a dearth of regional commercial markets. Two thirds of the world’s gas reserves are found within the countries that surround the Caspian Sea. But, with an absence of proximal commercial markets there are few underlying incentives for regional gas development. In the South Caspian the recent offshore giant gas discovery by BP at Shah Deniz (6.6 to 20bcmy) has captured the last remaining market gap in Turkey.19


18 Diplomatische Akademie Wien – Promoting institutional responses to the challenges in the Caucasus. Favorita Papers 2001. p.47

19 Diplomatische Akademie Wien – Promoting institutional responses to the challenges in the Caucasus. Favorita Papers 2001. p.52-53

Nevertheless they still used Baku Oil as a political lever with the West, in their attempts to secure their fragile independence. Political expectations were raised but seldom met. In 1919 Lord Curzon in London and President Wilson in Washington decided jointly that the security of the Caucasus was not worthy of the cost involved. The first independent Republics were hastily abandoned to their fate. Lenin, who needed Baku Oil to fuel his own fledgling Russian Revolution, seized the opportunity. The Bolsheviks occupied the Caucasus, and Baku Oil fell under Soviet control for the next 70 years.

[...]

Then with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the three independent democratic Republics of the Caucasus returned for a second time. But this time they were to survive. Once more the peoples of the region were plunged into the depths of catastrophic economic chaos, and ethnic conflicts that had been dormant since 1919 again flared up. Baku Oil was once more to be used as the key political weapon in Caucasian foreign policies.


[S. 52]


Unlike for oil, the south Caspian area suffers from an excess of gas reserves and a dearth of regional commercial markets. Two thirds of the world’s gas reserves (100tcm plus) are found within the countries that surround the Caspian Sea. But with an absence of proximal commercial markets there are few underlying incentives for regional gas

[S. 53]

development. In the South Caspian the recent offshore giant gas discovery by BP at Shah Deniz (6.6 to 20bcmy) has captured the last remaining market gap in Turkey.

Anmerkungen

Da der Autor im Text und den Anmerkungen genannt wird, kann das Fragment trotz flächiger als KW eingestuft werden. Der Umfang der wortwörtlichen Übernahmen bleibt dem Leser allerdings unklar.

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