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Titel    Basic Theory and Operating Principles of Laser Doppler Blood Flow Monitoring and Imaging (LDF & LDI), Issue 1.
Herausgeber    Moor instruments
Jahr    2006
Anmerkung    Datierung über PDF File Properties
URL    http://www.moor.co.uk/ckfinder/userfiles/files/Moor_Laser_doppler_theory_Issue_1.pdf

Literaturverz.   

nein
Fußnoten    ja
Fragmente    3


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Haw/Fragment 020 03 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-10-16 17:50:45 Singulus
Fragment, Gesichtet, Haw, KomplettPlagiat, Moor instruments 2006, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Quelle: Moor instruments 2006
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Laser Doppler is a standard technique for the non-invasive blood flow monitoring and measurement of blood flow in the microcirculatory system. The strength of the technique is in looking at changes in flow - either over time or differences in flow over an area of skin or other exposed tissue.

5.2. Operating principles

The laser Doppler technique measures blood flow in the very small blood vessels of the microvasculature, such as the low-speed flows associated with nutritional blood flow in capillaries close to the skin surface and flow in the underlying arterioles and venules involved in regulation of skin temperature. The tissue thickness sampled is typically 1mm, the capillary diameters 10 microns and the velocity spectrum measurement typically 0.01 to 10mm/s.

The technique depends on the Doppler principle whereby low power light from a monochromatic stable laser, e.g. a helium neon gas laser or a single mode laser diode, incident on tissue is scattered by moving red blood cells and as a consequence is frequency broadened. The frequency broadened light, together with laser light scattered from static tissue, is photo-detected and the resulting photocurrent processed to provide a blood flow measurement. Please note, where laser light is scattered for tissue with a low red blood cell concentration, the average Doppler frequency shift is proportional to the average speed of red blood cells.

Laser light can be directed to the tissue surface either via an optic fibre (Fig.1.8.a) or as a light beam (Fig.1.8.b). For ‘fibre optic’ monitors (LDF instruments) the optic fibre terminates in an optic probe which can be attached to the tissue surface. One or more light collecting fibres also terminate in the probe head and these fibres transmit a proportion of the scattered light to a photo-detector and the electronic signal processing [system.]

Laser Doppler is a standard technique for the non-invasive blood flow monitoring and measurement of blood flow in the microcirculation. The strength of the technique is in looking at changes in flow - either over time or differences in flow over an area of skin or other exposed tissue.

[...]

Operating Principles

The laser Doppler technique measures blood flow in the very small blood vessels of the microvasculature, such as the low-speed flows associated with nutritional blood flow in capillaries close to the skin surface and flow in the underlying arterioles and venules involved in regulation of skin temperature. The tissue thickness sampled is typically 1mm, the capillary diameters 10 microns and the velocity spectrum measurement typically 0.01 to 10mm/s. The technique depends on the Doppler principle whereby low power light from a monochromatic stable laser (a), e.g. a Helium Neon gas laser or a single mode laser diode, incident on tissue is scattered by moving red blood cells and as a consequence is frequency broadened (b). The frequency broadened light, together with laser light scattered from static tissue, is photodetected and the resulting photocurrent processed to provide a blood flow measurement. Please note, where laser light is scattered for tissue with a low red blood cell concentration the average Doppler frequency shift is proportional to the average speed of red blood cells.

[Seite 2]

Laser light can be directed to the tissue surface either via an optic fibre (c) or as a light beam (d). For ‘fibre optic’ monitors (LDF instruments) the optic fibre terminates in an optic probe which can be attached to the tissue surface. One or more light collecting fibres also terminate in the probe head and these fibres transmit a proportion of the scattered light to a photodetector and the signal processing electronics.

Anmerkungen

Ein Verweis auf die Quelle fehlt.

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(Hindemith) Klgn

[2.] Haw/Fragment 021 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-10-23 19:49:38 WiseWoman
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Normal fibre separations in the probe head are a few tenths of 1mm, consequently blood flow is measured in a tissue volume of typically 1mm3 or smaller.

(Fig.1.8.a)

Haw 21a diss.png

(Basic Theory and Operating Principles of LDF & LDI, Moor instruments Ltd User manual, 2003)

In a Laser Doppler blood flow Imager (LDI) the low intensity laser beam is scanned across a tissue surface in a raster fashion using a moving mirror. There is no direct contact with the tissue being assessed. The basic elements of the moorLDI are shown schematically in the following figure.

(Fig.1.8.b)

Haw 21b diss.png

(Basic Theory and Operating Principles of LDF & LDI, Moor instruments Ltd User manual, 2003)

Normal fibre separations in the probe head are a few tenths of a mm, consequently blood flow is measured in a tissue volume of typically 1mm3 or smaller. [...]

(c)

Haw 21a source.png

In a Laser Doppler blood flow Imager (LDI) the low intensity laser beam is scanned across a tissue surface in a raster fashion using a moving mirror. There is no direct contact with the tissue being assessed. The basic elements of the moorLDI are shown schematically in the following figure.

(d)

Haw 21b source.png

Anmerkungen

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Sichter
(Hindemith), WiseWoman

[3.] Haw/Fragment 022 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-10-16 17:52:56 Singulus
Fragment, Gesichtet, Haw, KomplettPlagiat, Moor instruments 2006, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Both large areas (a full torso) and small areas (part of a finger) can be scanned, enabling the blood flow to be mapped and colour coded images of the blood flow displayed. Regions of interest can be defined and statistical data can be calculated and recorded.

Single point measurements give a high temporal resolution (40Hz data rates are typical) enabling rapid blood flow changes to be recorded, whereas the laser Doppler imager can provide spatial information and has the ability to average blood flow measurements over large areas. Fibre optic systems can measure at tissue sites not easily accessible to a laser beam. For example measurements in brain tissue, mouth, gut, colon, muscle and bone.

5.3. The definition of perfusion units

The term commonly used to describe blood flow measured by the laser Doppler technique is ‘flux’: a quantity proportional to the product of the average speed of the blood cells and their number concentration (often referred to as blood volume). This is expressed in arbitrary ‘perfusion units’ and is calculated using the first moment of the power spectral density.

Both large areas (a full torso) and small areas (part of a finger) can be scanned enabling the blood flow to be mapped and colour coded images of the blood flow displayed. Regions of interest can be defined and statistical data calculated and recorded.

[Seite 3]

Single point measurements give a high temporal resolution (40Hz data rates are typical) enabling rapid blood flow changes to be recorded, whereas the laser Doppler imager can provide spatial information and has the ability to average blood flow measurements over large areas. Fibre optic systems can measure at tissue sites not easily accessible to a laser beam. For example measurements in brain tissue, mouth, gut, colon, muscle and bone.

[...]

Definitions

The term commonly used to describe blood flow measured by the laser Doppler technique is ‘flux’: a quantity proportional to the product of the average speed of the blood cells and their number concentration (often referred to as blood volume). This is expressed in arbitrary ‘perfusion units’ and is calculated using the first moment of the power spectral density.

Anmerkungen

Ein Verweis auf die Quelle fehlt.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Klgn

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