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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Hans Christiansen, Nadeem Sheikh, Bernhard Saile, Felix Reuter, Margret Rave-Fränk, Robert M. Hermann, Jozsef Dudas, Andrea Hille, Clemens Friedrich Hess, Giuliano Ramadori
Titel    x-Irradiation in Rat Liver: Consequent Upregulation of Hepcidin and Downregulation of Hemojuvelin and Ferroportin-1 Gene Expression
Zeitschrift    Radiology
Ausgabe    242
Datum    January 2007
Nummer    1
URL    http://pubs.rsna.org/doi/pdf/10.1148/radiol.2421060083

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    5


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Iam/Fragment 010 08 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-12 19:43:34 Graf Isolan
BauernOpfer, Christiansen et al 2007, Fragment, Gesichtet, Iam, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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The liver is a highly radiosensitive organ because of the danger of development of radiation-induced liver disease. It could be that cell-cell interactions between different cell systems occurring in the liver probably play a decisive role in the development of radiation-induced liver disease (Christiansen et al. 2007).

The molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular damage after irradiation is obscure.


Christiansen H, Sheikh N, Saile B, Reuter F, Rave-Frank M, Hermann RM, Dudas J, Hille A, Hess CF, Ramadori G (2007) x-Irradiation in rat liver: consequent upregulation of hepcidin and downregulation of hemojuvelin and ferroportin-1 gene expression. Radiology 242:189-197

The liver is a highly radiosensitive organ because of the danger of development of radiation-induced liver disease. Because isolated primary hepatocytes in vitro are known to be radioresistant (14–20), cell-cell interactions between different cell systems occurring in the liver probably play a decisive role in the development of radiation-induced liver disease. [...]

The molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular damage after irradiation is obscure.

Anmerkungen

The source is given, but it is not clear that the text is taken mostly verbatim and that also the sentence after the reference to the source is taken from it.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[2.] Iam/Fragment 011 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-12 19:43:29 Graf Isolan
Christiansen et al 2007, Fragment, Gesichtet, Iam, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Previous studies has reported that the chemokines and cytokines are important for hepatocellular damage, repair, and fibrosis development in other toxic liver injuries (Jaeschke et al. 1996;Ramadori and Armbrust 2001;Ramadori et al. 2008). Similarly, cell types of different organs interact by way of cytokines in the development of normal tissue reactions after radiation therapy (Herskind et al. 1998).

Herskind C, Bamberg M, Rodemann HP (1998) The role of cytokines in the development of normal-tissue reactions after radiotherapy. Strahlenther Onkol 174 Suppl 3:12-15

Jaeschke H, Smith CW, Clemens MG, Ganey PE, Roth RA (1996) Mechanisms of inflammatory liver injury: adhesion molecules and cytotoxicity of neutrophils. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 139:213-226

Ramadori G, Armbrust T (2001) Cytokines in the liver. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:777- 784

Ramadori G, Moriconi F, Malik I, Dudas J (2008) Physiology and pathophysiology of liver inflammation, damage and repair. J Physiol Pharmacol 59 Suppl 1:107-117

Cytokines are important for hepatocellular damage, repair, and fibrosis development in other toxic liver injuries (26–28). Similarly, cell types of different organs interact by way of cytokines in the development of normal tissue reactions after radiation therapy (29).

26. Jaeschke H, Smith CW, Clemens MG, Ganey PE, Roth RA. Mechanisms of inflammatory liver injury: adhesion molecules and cytotoxicity of neutrophils. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1996;139:213–216.

27. Neubauer K, Saile B, Ramadori G. Liver fibrosis and altered matrix synthesis. Can J Gastroenterol 2001;15:187–193.

28. Ramadori G, Armbrust T. Cytokines in the liver. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13: 777–784.

29. Herskind C, Bamberg M, Rodemann HP. The role of cytokines in the development of normal-tissue reactions after radiotherapy. Strahlenther Onkol 1998;174:12–15.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

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(Hindemith) Schumann

[3.] Iam/Fragment 011 12 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-12 19:43:20 Graf Isolan
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Investigators have shown that hepatocytes are not substantially damaged by radiation. Still, radiation can weaken the defense mechanisms of hepatocytes, and this weakening can lead to the susceptibility to apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in-vitro in some hepatocytes (Christiansen et al. 2004). Furthermore, results of a recent study indicate that whole-liver irradiation in the rat leads to development of steatosis within the first 48 hours after irradiation (Christiansen et al. 2006).

Christiansen H, Batusic D, Saile B, Hermann RM, Dudas J, Rave-Frank M, Hess CF, Schmidberger H, Ramadori G (2006) Identification of genes responsive to gamma radiation in rat hepatocytes and rat liver by cDNA array gene expression analysis. Radiat Res 165:318-325

Christiansen H, Saile B, Neubauer-Saile K, Tippelt S, Rave-Frank M, Hermann RM, Dudas J, Hess CF, Schmidberger H, Ramadori G (2004) Irradiation leads to susceptibility of hepatocytes to TNF-alpha mediated apoptosis. Radiother Oncol 72:291-296

Investigators have shown that hepatocytes are not substantially damaged by radiation. Still, radiation can weaken the defense mechanisms of hepatocytes, and this weakening can lead to the susceptibility to apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in vitro in some hepatocytes (30). Furthermore, results of a recent study indicate that whole-liver irradiation in the rat leads to development of steatosis within the first 48 hours after irradiation (31).

30. Christiansen H, Saile B, Neubauer-Saile K, et al. Irradiation leads to susceptibility of hepatocytes to TNF-alpha mediated apoptosis. Radiother Oncol 2004;72:291–296.

31. Christiansen H, Batusic D, Saile B, et al. Identification of genes responsive to gamma radiation in rat hepatocytes and rat liver by cDNA array gene expression analysis. Radiat Res 2006;165:318–325.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[4.] Iam/Fragment 024 04 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-12 20:03:16 Graf Isolan
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The in-vivo experiments were performed as described previously: (Christiansen et al. 2006). Before irradiation planning computed tomography (CT) was performed with a scanner (Somatom Balance; Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) in each rat to delineate the livers of the animals. The rats were anaesthetized intraperitoneally (IP) with 90 mg ketamine per kilogram of body weight (Intervet, Unterschleissheim, Germany) and 7.5 mg/kg of 2% xylazine (Serumwerk Bernburg, Bernburg/Saale, Germany). The margins of the liver were marked on the skin of the animals and a dose distribution was calculated. The livers were irradiated selectively with 6–MeV photons (dose rate, 2.4 Gy/min) by using an accelerator (Clinac 600 C; Varian, Palo Alto, Calif). A dose of 25 Gy in a single treatment was delivered by using an anteroposterior and posteroanterior treatment technique. Normal sham-irradiated animals, which were transported and anesthetized simultaneously with the irradiated animals, served as specific controls. Animals were observed at specified times up to 48 hours after irradiation and seemed to behave normally without signs of discomfort. Livers and serum samples were taken from five animals each at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after irradiation and frozen.

Christiansen H, Batusic D, Saile B, Hermann RM, Dudas J, Rave-Frank M, Hess CF, Schmidberger H, Ramadori G (2006) Identification of genes responsive to gamma radiation in rat hepatocytes and rat liver by cDNA array gene expression analysis. Radiat Res 165:318-325

[page 190]

In vivo experiments were performed by several authors (H.C., F.R., M.R., R.M.H., A.H.) in consensus, as described previously by Christiansen et al (31): Planning computed tomography (CT) was performed with a scanner (Somatom Balance; Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) in each rat to delineate the livers of the animals. The rats were intraperitoneally anesthetized with 90 mg per kilogram of body weight of ketamine (Intervet, Unterschleissheim, Germany) and 7.5 mg/kg of 2% xylazine (Serumwerk Bernburg, Bernburg/Saale, Germany). The margins of the liver were marked

[page 191]

on the skin of each animal, and a dose distribution was calculated.

The livers were irradiated selectively with 6–MeV photons (dose rate, 2.4 Gy/min) by using an accelerator (Clinac 600 C; Varian, Palo Alto, Calif). A dose of 25 Gy in a single treatment was delivered by using an anteroposterior and posteroanterior treatment technique. Normal sham-irradiated animals, which were transported and anesthetized simultaneously with the irradiated animals, served as specific controls. Animals were observed at specified times up to 48 hours after irradiation and seemed to behave normally without signs of discomfort. Livers and serum samples were taken from five animals each at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after irradiation and frozen.


31. Christiansen H, Batusic D, Saile B, et al. Identification of genes responsive to gamma radiation in rat hepatocytes and rat liver by cDNA array gene expression analysis. Radiat Res 2006;165:318–325.

Anmerkungen

Christiansen et al. (2006) does not have the passage in this formulation.

It is not surprising that the same research group follows a similar or the same protocol for different experiments. However, text re-use should be clearly marked and the correct source given.

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(Hindemith) Schumann

[5.] Iam/Fragment 031 11 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-12 20:03:21 Graf Isolan
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Irradiation was performed 24 hours after the hepatocytes were plated, and the culture medium was replaced immediately before irradiation: On the first day after isolation, hepatocytes were irradiated with 8 Gy (6–megaelectron volt photons) at a dose rate of 2.4 Gy/min by using the accelerator mentioned before. Irradiation was performed 24 hours after the hepatocytes were plated, and the culture medium was replaced immediately before irradiation: On the first day after isolation, hepatocytes were irradiated with 8 Gy (6–megaelectron volt photons) at a dose rate of 2.4 Gy/min by using the accelerator mentioned before.
Anmerkungen

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