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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Maria A. Hawkins, Laura A. Dawson
Titel    Radiation Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Zeitschrift    Cancer
Herausgeber    American Cancer Society
Verlag    Wiley
Ausgabe    106
Datum    15. April 2006
Nummer    8
Seiten    1653-1663
DOI    10.1002/cncr.21811
URL    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.21811/pdf

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    3


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Iam/Fragment 003 03 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-03-12 19:26:38 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Gesichtet, Hawkins and Dawson 2006, Iam, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world (626,000 diagnoses per year) and is the third most common cause of cancer-related death (598,000 deaths per year). Although HCC predominantly is a problem in developing countries, its incidence is expected to rise over the next decade in North America largely because of the increasing incidence of hepatitis C2 and the 1% to 4% risk per year of HCC developing in patients with cirrhosis (Helton et al. 2003). Unfortunately, the overall 5-year survival rate for all patients with HCC has remained steady at 3% to 5% (Parkin 2001). HCC is particularly challenging to treat because of to the common locally advanced or multifocal presentation of disease that develops in a background of cirrhosis because the survival of patients with HCC is related strongly to underlying liver function (Chevret et al. 1999).

Chevret S, Trinchet JC, Mathieu D, Rached AA, Beaugrand M, Chastang C (1999) A new prognostic classification for predicting survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Groupe d'Etude et de Traitement du Carcinome Hepatocellulaire. J Hepatol 31:133-141

Helton WS, Di BA, Chari R, Schwartz M, Bruix J (2003) Treatment strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. J Gastrointest Surg 7:401-411

Parkin DM (2001) Global cancer statistics in the year 2000. Lancet Oncol 2:533-543

[page 1653]

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world (626,000 diagnoses per year) and is the third most common cause of cancer-related death (598,000 deaths per year).1 Although HCC predominantly is a problem in developing countries, its incidence is expected to rise over the next decade in North America largely because of the increasing incidence of hepatitis C2 and the 1% to 4% risk per year of HCC developing in patients with cirrhosis.3 Unfortunately, the overall 5-year survival rate for all patients with HCC has remained steady at 3% to 5%.1

HCC is particularly challenging to treat because of to the common locally advanced or multifocal presentation of disease that de-

[page 1654]

velops in a background of cirrhosis. Because the survival of patients with HCC is related strongly to underlying liver function,4 [...]


1. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005;55:74-108.

2. El-Serag HB, Mason AC. Rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:745- 750.

3. Helton WS, Di Bisceglie A, Chari R, Schwartz M, Bruix J. Treatment strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2003;7:401-411.

4. Chevret S, Trinchet JC, Mathieu D, Rached AA, Beaugrand M, Chastang C. A new prognostic classification for predicting survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Groupe d’Etude et de Traitement du Carcinome Hepatocellulaire. J Hepatol. 1999;31:133-141.

Anmerkungen

The first lines of the thesis are taken verbatim from a source that is mentioned nowhere in the thesis. Also references to the literature have been taken (except one, where apparently the superscript "2" has been overlooked, such that the thesis talks now about "hepatitis C2")

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[2.] Iam/Fragment 011 30 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-06 12:13:57 Guckar
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Resection and liver transplantation are the treatments for HCC with the most mature outcome data (Cheng et al. 2004a;Iwatsuki et al. 1991) but above 15% of patients with HCC are candidates for resection or transplantation, many other therapies have been investigated.

Cheng JC, Wu JK, Lee PC, Liu HS, Jian JJ, Lin YM, Sung JL, Jan GJ (2004a) Biologic susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy to radiation-induced liver disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60:1502-1509

Iwatsuki S, Starzl TE, Sheahan DG, Yokoyama I, Demetris AJ, Todo S, Tzakis AG, Van Thiel DH, Carr B, Selby R, . (1991) Hepatic resection versus transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Surg 214:221-228

Resection and liver transplantation are the treatments for HCC with the most mature outcome data.12–15 [...]

Because <15% of patients with HCC are candidates for resection or transplantation, many other therapies have been investigated.


12. Iwatsuki S, Starzl TE, Sheahan DG, et al. Hepatic resection versus transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Surg. 1991;214:221-228; discussion, 228-229.

13. Carr BI, Selby R, Madariaga J, Iwatsuki S, Starzl TE. Prolonged survival after liver transplantation and cancer chemotherapy for advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Transplant Proc. 1993;25(1 Pt 2):1128-1129.

14. Stone MJ, Klintmalm GB, Polter D, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: a pilot study in 20 patients. Gastroenterology. 1993; 104:196-202.

15. Cherqui D. Role of adjuvant treatment in liver transplantation for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma [review]. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 1998;5:35-40.

36. Cheng JC, Wu JK, Lee PC, et al. Biologic susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy to radiation-induced liver disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;60:1502-1509.

Anmerkungen

To be continued on the next page: Iam/Fragment 012 01

Note that the meaning of the copied text is badly reproduced: "<15%" --> "above 15%", causality "because" is lost.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

[3.] Iam/Fragment 012 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-04-06 12:14:05 Guckar
Fragment, Gesichtet, Hawkins and Dawson 2006, Iam, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Quelle: Hawkins and Dawson 2006
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Systemic chemotherapy has had limited impact in HCC (Leung et al. 2002;Mathurin et al. 1998). Historically, radiation therapy (RT) has played a minor role in the management of patients with unresectable liver cancer, primarily because of the low tolerance of the whole liver to RT and challenges associated with delivering highly conformal, high-dose RT to liver tumors while sparing dose to the uninvolved liver. There is a below 5% risk of radiation-induced liver injury after uniform whole-liver RT of 28 to 35 Gy delivered over 3 weeks, (Emami et al. 1991;Leung et al. 2002) doses that are far less than those required to eradicate tumor. The most common liver toxicity observed in North America is radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), which is a clinical syndrome of anicteric hepatomegaly, ascites and elevated liver enzymes (particularly serum alkaline phosphatase) that occurs from 2 weeks to 3 months after external beam RT (Leung et al. 2002). Treatment for RILD consists of supportive measures and in the minority of patients, it can result in liver failure. Reactivation of viral hepatitis and precipitation of underlying liver disease also can occur after RT for HCC (Cheng et al. 2004b).

Cheng JC, Wu JK, Lee PC, Liu HS, Jian JJ, Lin YM, Sung JL, Jan GJ (2004b) Biologic susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy to radiation-induced liver disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60:1502-1509

Emami B, Lyman J, Brown A, Coia L, Goitein M, Munzenrider JE, Shank B, Solin LJ, Wesson M (1991) Tolerance of normal tissue to therapeutic irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 21:109-122

Leung TW, Tang AM, Zee B, Yu SC, Lai PB, Lau WY, Johnson PJ (2002) Factors predicting response and survival in 149 patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma treated by combination cisplatin, interferon-alpha, doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Cancer 94:421-427

Mathurin P, Rixe O, Carbonell N, Bernard B, Cluzel P, Bellin MF, Khayat D, Opolon P, Poynard T (1998) Review article: Overview of medical treatments in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma--an impossible meta-analysis? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 12:111-126

Systemic chemotherapy has had limited impact in

HCC.31–33 [...]

Historically, radiation therapy (RT) has played a minor role in the management of patients with unresectable liver cancer, primarily because of the low tolerance of the whole liver to RT and challenges associated with delivering highly conformal, high-dose RT to liver tumors while sparing dose to the uninvolved liver. There is a >5% risk of radiation-induced liver injury after uniform whole-liver RT of 28 gray (Gy) to 35 Gy delivered over 3 weeks,34,35 doses that are far less than those required to eradicate tumor. The most common liver toxicity observed in North America is radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), which is a clinical syndrome of anicteric hepatomegaly, ascites, and elevated liver enzymes (particularly serum alkaline phosphatase) that occurs from 2 weeks to 3 months after external beam RT.35 Treatment for RILD consists of supportive measures, and, in the minority of patients, it can result in liver failure. Reactivation of viral hepatitis and precipitation of underlying liver disease also can occur after RT for HCC.36


31. Mathurin P, Rixe O, Carbonell N, et al. Review article: overview of medical treatments in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma—an impossible metaanalysis? Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1998;12:111-126.

32. Burroughs A, Hochhauser D, Meyer T. Systemic treatment and liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: two ends of the therapeutic spectrum. Lancet Oncol. 2004;5:409-418.

33. Leung TW, Tang AM, Zee B, et al. Factors predicting response and survival in 149 patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma treated by combination cisplatin, interferon-alpha, doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Cancer. 2002;94:421-427.

34. Emami B, Lyman J, Brown A, et al. Tolerance of normal tissue to therapeutic irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1991;21:109-122.

35. Lawrence TS, Robertson JM, Anscher MS, Jirtle RL, Ensminger WD, Fajardo LF. Hepatic toxicity resulting from cancer treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1995;31:1237-1248.

36. Cheng JC, Wu JK, Lee PC, et al. Biologic susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy to radiation-induced liver disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;60:1502-1509.

Anmerkungen

The copied text starts on the previous page: Iam/Fragment 011 30

Note that the copied material is not always correctly reproduced: ">5% risk" --> "below 5% risk".

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

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