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Autor     Mohammed Abd El-Aziz Abd El-Haliem Sayed
Titel    QTL Analysis for Drought Tolerance Related to Root and Shoot Traits in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Ort    Bonn
Jahr    2011
URL    http://hss.ulb.uni-bonn.de/2011/2521/2521.pdf

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[1.] Ib/Fragment 003 11 - Diskussion
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1.3.1.1 World barley production and utilization

Barley is a cereal grain, early maturing grain with a high yield potential and widely adaptable crop (Harlan 1976). Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) ranks fourth in world cereal crop production and is used for, in order of importance, animal feed, brewing malts and human food. World barley production in 2010 was approximately 123.5 million metric tons (MMT) produced on 47.59 million hectares (MH). It is grown for animal feed, human food, and malt. However, in developing countries, most barley is grown in marginal environments, often on the fringes of deserts and steppes or at high elevations in the tropics, receiving modest or no inputs. This partly explains why yields there are nearly half of those in developed countries. Although barley is considered to be one of oldest cultivated cereal grains and was used extensively as a food in the past, only a small amount of barley is used for human consumption. In recent years there has been a growing research interest for the utilization of barley in a wide range of food applications (Bhatty, 1999; Bilgi and Çelik, 2004 and Köksel et al. 1999).

1.3.1.2 Taxonomic position and origin of barley

Linnaeus was the first to provide a botanical description of barley in his species Plantarium in 1753. Barley is a grass belonging to the family Poaceae, the tribe Triticeae and the genus Hordeum. There are 32 species, for a total of 45 taxa in the genus Hordeum that are separated into four sections (Bothmer 1992). The four sections proposed by Bothmer are as follows: Hordeum, Anisolepis, Critesion, and Stenostachys. The division of the genus into sections puts plants into groups that have similar morphological characteristics, similarities in ecology, [life forms and geographical area of origin.]


Bhatty RS (1999) The potential of hull-less barley. Cereal Chemistry, 76 (5) (1999), pp. 589–599

Bilgi B and Çelik S (2004) Solubility and emulsifying properties of barley protein concentrate. European Food Research and Technology, 218 pp. 437–441

Bothmer von R (1992) the wild species of Hordeum. In Shewry PR (ed) Barley genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology. Wallingford, CAB International, pp 2-17

Harlan JR (1976) Barley Hordeum vulgare (Gramineae--Triticinae) In Evolution in Crop Plants, ed N W Simmonds Longman, London, pp 93-8

Köksel H, Edney MJ and Özkaya B (1999) Barley bulgur: effect of processing and cooking on chemical composition. Journal of Cereal Science, 29 pp. 185–190

1.1.1 World barley production and utilization

Barley is a short season, early maturing grain with a high yield potential, and may be found on the fringes of agriculture in widely varying environments (Harlan 1976). World barley production in 2009 was approximately 155.1 million metric tons (MMT) produced on 54.13 million hectares (MH). Europe had the largest growing area of barley, harvesting 27.8 MH and producing 95.9 MMT in 2009, which was 61.8% of the total world barley production. It is grown for animal feed, human food, and malt. However, in developing countries, most barley is grown in marginal environments, often on the fringes of deserts and steppes or at high elevations in the tropics, receiving modest or no inputs. This partly explains

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why yields there are nearly half of those in developed countries. Although barley is considered to be one of oldest cultivated cereal grains and was used extensively as a food in the past. Barley use as food in the European Community was even less (0.3%) than in the United States. The largest use for barley as a food was in Morocco (61%), Ethiopia (79%), China (62%), and India (73%) (Kent and Evers 1994).

1.1.2 Taxonomic position and origin of barley

Linnaeus was the first to provide a botanical description of barley in his Species Plantarium in 1753 (Bothmer and Jacobsen 1985). Barley is a grass belonging to the family Poaceae, the tribe Triticeae and the genus Hordeum. There are 32 species, for a total of 45 taxa in the genus Hordeum that are separated into four sections (Bothmer 1992). The four sections proposed by Bothmer are as follows: Hordeum, Anisolepis, Critesion, and Stenostachys. The division of the genus into sections puts plants into groups that have similar morphological characteristics, life forms, similarities in ecology, and geographical area of origin.


Bothmer R von and Jacobsen N (1985) Origin, taxonomy, and related species Rasmusson, D (ed), Barley ASA Monograph 26:19-56

Harlan JR (1976) Barley Hordeum vulgare (Gramineae--Triticinae) In Evolution in Crop Plants, ed N W Simmonds Longman, London, pp 93-8

Kent NL, Evers AD (1994) Kent‟s Technology of Cereals Elsevier Science:Oxford

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[2.] Ib/Fragment 004 01 - Diskussion
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The basic chromosome number of x = 7 is represented across the 45 taxa as diploid (2n = 2x = 14), tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28), and hexaploid (2n = 6x = 42). Six species are listed in the section Hordeum; H. bulbosum, H. murinum ssp. glaucum, H. murinum ssp. leporinum, H. murinum ssp. murinum L., H. vulgare ssp. vulgare, and H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum. The genomes of H. vulgare ssp. vulgare (cultivated barley) and H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum (wild barley) are identical and interfertile.

Barley is a short season crop, early maturing grain found in widely varying environments around the world. Barley provides an very good system for genome mapping and genetic studies, due to (1) its diploid nature, (2) low chromosome number (2n=14), (3) relatively large chromosomes (6-8 μm), (4) high degree of self fertility, and (5) ease of hybridization (Sreenivasulu et al. 2008, Hussain 2006).]

The division of the genus into sections puts plants into groups that have similar morphological characteristics, life forms, similarities in ecology, and geographical area of origin. The basic chromosome number of x = 7 is represented across the 45 taxa as diploid (2n = 2x = 14), tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28), and hexaploid (2n = 6x = 42). Six species are listed in the section Hordeum; H. bulbosum, H. murinum ssp. glaucum, H. murinum ssp. leporinum, H. murinum ssp. murinum L., H. vulgare ssp. vulgare, and H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum. The genomes of H. vulgare ssp. vulgare (cultivated barley) and H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum (wild barley) are identical and interfertile (Fedak 1992).

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Barley is a short season, early maturing grain with a high yield potential, and may be found on the fringes of agriculture in widely varying environments (Harlan 1976).

[page 1:]

Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) is one of the important crops worldwide and provides an excellent system for genome mapping and genetic studies, due to (1) its diploid nature, (2) low chromosome number (2n=14), (3) relatively large chromosomes (6-8 μm), (4) high degree of self fertility, and (5) ease of hybridization (Sreenivasulu et al. 2008, Hussain et al. 2006).

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