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Autor     Victoria E. Beckner, David M. Tucker, Yvon Delville, David C. Mohr
Titel    Stress Facilitates Consolidation of Verbal Memory for a Film but Does Not Affect Retrieval
Zeitschrift    Behavioral Neuroscience
Herausgeber    American Psychological Association
Ausgabe    120
Jahr    2006
Nummer    3
Seiten    518–527
DOI    10.1037/0735-7044.120.3.518
URL    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/7014179_Stress_facilitates_consolidation_of_verbal_memory_for_a_film_but_does_not_affect_retrieval

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    8


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Although research clearly demonstrates that chronically elevated cortisol (from disease, corticosteroid treatment, or aging) is associated with impairments in declarative memory (Lupien et al., 2004, 1998; Martignoni et al., 1992), evidence for acute effects is mixed. Early experimental studies using stress induction or single-dose glucocorticoid administration showed an impairing effect of acutely elevated cortisol on verbal declarative memory (Kirschbaum et al., 1996; Newcomer et al., 1994; Wolf et al., 2001; Wolkowitz et al., 1990). However, recent studies investigating acute effects of cortisol on word recall either failed to replicate these findings by using cortisol administration (Hsu et al., 2003) or psychosocial stress (Wolf et al., 2001) or obtained opposite findings (Domes et al., 2002).

One explanation for these discrepancies, according to Beckner and colleagues (2006), may be due to differences in dose levels of glucocorticoids. Both animal and human data suggest an inverted U-shaped function between glucocorticoids and memory (see Lupien & McEwen, 1997, for a review).


Beckner, V.E., Tucker, D.M., Delville, Y., & Mohr, D.C. (2006). Stress facilitates consolidation of verbal memory for a film but does not affect retrieval. Behavioural Neuroscience, 120, 518-527.

Domes, G., Heinrichs, M., Reichwald, U., & Hautzinger, M. (2002). Hypothalamic–pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to psychological stress and memory in middle-aged women: high responders exhibit enhanced declarative memory performance. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27, 843.

Hsu, F.C., Garside, M.J., Massey, A.E., & McAllister-Williams, R.H. (2003). Effects of a single dose of cortisol on the neural correlates of episodic memory and error processing in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology , 167, 431-442.

Kirschbaum, C., Wolf, O.T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D.H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475-1483.

Lupien, S.J., de Leon, M., de Santi, S., Convit, A., Tarshish, C., Nair, N.P., Thakur, M., McEwen, B.S., Hauger, R.L., & Meaney, M.J. (1998). Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits. Nature Neuroscience, 1, 3–4.

Lupien, S.J., DeLeon, M., DeSanti, S., Convit, A., Tarshish, C., Nair, N.P.V., McEwen, B.S., Hauger, R.L., & Meaney, M.J. (1998). Longitudinal increase in cortisol during human aging predicts hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits. Nature Neuroscience, 1, 69-73.

Martignoni, E., Costa, A., & Sinforiani, E. (1992). The brain as a target for adrenocortical steroids: cognitive implications. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 17, 343-354.

Newcomer, J.W., Craft, S., Hershey, T., Askins, K., & Bardgett, M.E. (1994). Glucocorticoidinduced impairment in declarative memory performance in adult humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 2047–2053.

Wolf, O.T., Convit, A., McHugh, P.F., Kandil, E., Thorn, E.L., De Santi, S., McEwen, B.S., & de Leon, M.J. (2001a). Cortisol differentially affects memory in young and elderly men. Behavioural Neuroscience, 105, 1002-1011.

Wolf, O.T., Schommer, N.C., Hellhammer, D.H., McEwen, B.S., & Kirschbaum, C. (2001b). The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 711-720.

Although research clearly demonstrates that chronically elevated cortisol (from disease, corticosteroid treatment, or aging) is associated with impairments in declarative memory (Lupien et al., 1998; Martignoni et al., 1992; Starkman & Schteingart, 1981; Wolkowitz, Lupien, Bigler, Levin, & Canick, 2004), evidence for acute effects is mixed. Early experimental studies using a stress induction or single-dose glucocorticoid administration showed an impairing effect of acutely elevated cortisol on verbal declarative memory (Kirschbaum, Wolf, May, Wippich, & Hellhammer, 1996; Newcomer, Craft, Hershey, Askins, & Bardgett, 1994; Wolf, Schommer, Hellhammer, McEwen, & Kirschbaum, 2001; Wolkowitz et al., 1990). However, recent studies looking at acute effects of cortisol on word recall either failed to replicate these findings by using cortisol administration (Hsu, Garside, Massey, & McAllister-Williams, 2003) or psychosocial stress (Wolf, Convit, et al., 2001) or obtained opposite findings (Domes, Heinrichs, Reichwald, & Hautzinger, 2002). One explanation for these discrepancies may be due to differences in dose: Animal and human data suggest an inverted U-shaped function between glucocorticoids and memory (see Lupien & McEwen, 1997, for a review).

Domes, G., Heinrichs, M., Reichwald, U., & Hautzinger, M. (2002). Hypothalamic–pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to psychological stress and memory in middle-aged women: High responders exhibit enhanced declarative memory performance. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27, 843– 853.

Hsu, F. C., Garside, M. J., Massey, A. E., & McAllister-Williams, R. H. (2003). Effects of a single dose of cortisol on the neural correlates of episodic memory and error processing in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 167, 431–442.

Kirschbaum, C., Wolf, O. T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475–1483.

Lupien, S. J., de Leon, M., de Santi, S., Convit, A., Tarshish, C., Nair, N. P., et al. (1998). Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits. Nature Neuroscience, 1, 69–73.

Lupien, S. J., & McEwen, B. S. (1997). The acute effects of corticosteroids on cognition: Integration of animal and human model studies. Brain Research Reviews, 24, 1–27.

Martignoni, E., Costa, A., Sinforiani, E., Liuzzi, A., Chiodini, P., Mauri, M., et al. (1992). The brain as a target for adrenocortical steroids: Cognitive implications. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 17, 343–354.

Newcomer, J. W., Craft, S., Hershey, T., Askins, K., & Bardgett, M. E. (1994). Glucocorticoid-induced impairment in declarative memory performance in adult humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 14, 2047–2053.

Starkman, M. N., & Schteingart, D. E. (1981). Neuropsychiatric manifestations of patients with Cushing’s syndrome. Relationship to cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. Archives of Internal Medicine, 141, 215–219.

Wolf, O. T., Convit, A., McHugh, P. F., Kandil, E., Thorn, E. L., De Santi, S., et al. (2001). Cortisol differentially affects memory in young and elderly men. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115, 1002–1011.

Wolf, O. T., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., McEwen, B. S., & Kirschbaum, C. (2001). The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 711–720.

Wolkowitz, O. M., Reus, V. I., Weingartner, H., Thompson, K., Breier, A., Doran, A., et al. (1990). Cognitive effects of corticosteroids. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1297–1303.

Anmerkungen

There is no entry for Wolkowitz et al. (1990) in the list of references in Jm.

Nothing has been marked as a citation. The source of this paragraph is mentioned in passing in the second paragraph.

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(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

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[In many of the human studies demonstrating an] impairing effect of elevated cortisol on memory, the stressor or glucocorticoid is applied before stimulus presentation and learning, and recall is tested within 1–2 hours. In such a paradigm, cortisol levels are elevated during all memory phases: the learning period (initial encoding of the information), consolidation (the continuous transfer of information into longer term storage), and retrieval (recall of information from memory stores). Disruption of any one of these memory processes could account for detrimental effects of stress on memory and might also obscure any facilitated process. Roozendaal (2002) has theorized that under stressful conditions, consolidation of novel information related to the situation is enhanced such that one is more likely to later remember information associated with the stressful experience. However, in order to facilitate this new learning during arousing situations, competing processes of retrieving old information (which could result in retroactive interference) may be inhibited. Thus, it may be impaired retrieval that accounts for many of the human findings cited above, rather than stress effects on learning or consolidation.

Indeed, recent studies that have managed to isolate consolidation as a target process point to a facilitative effect of stress. These investigations typically administer the stress induction protocol or corticosteroids prior to or immediately following training (i.e., during encoding and consolidation), followed by retention testing at least 24 hr later. Retrieval is therefore tested after corticosterone levels have returned to baseline, thereby isolating the effect of glucocorticoids on consolidation of new memories. Animal studies using this paradigm have generally found a facilitative effect of moderate levels of glucocorticoids on consolidation (Conrad, Lupien & McEwen, 1999; Oitzl & de Kloet, 1992; Roozendaal & McGaugh, 1996; Sandi, Loscertales & Guaza, 1997). Several recent human studies have also found a facilitative effect of stress or administered cortisol on encoding and consolidation of visual information with affective content when recall is tested at least 24 hr after learning (Buchanan & Lovallo, 2001; Cahill, Gorski & Le, 2003); an additional study found this for [both emotionally arousing and neutral information (Abercrombie et al., 2003).]


Abercrombie, H.C., Kalin, N.H., Thurow, M.E., Rosenkranz, M.A., & Davidson, R.J. (2003). Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 505-516.

Buchanan, T.W. & Lovallo, W.R. (2001). Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 307–317.

Cahill L, Gorski L, & Le K (2003). Enhanced human memory consolidation with post-learning stress: interaction with the degree of arousal at encoding. Learning and Memory, 10, 270–274.

Conrad, C.D., Lupien, S.J., & McEwen, B.S. (1999). Support for a bimodal role for Type II adrenal steroid receptors in spatial memory. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 72, 39-46.

Oitzl, M.S. & de Kloet, E.R. (1992). Selective corticosteroid antagonists modulate specific aspects of spatial orientation learning. Behavioural Neuroscience, 106, 62-71.

Roozendaal, B. (2002). Stress and memory: opposing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation and memory retrieval. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 578-595.

Roozendaal, B. & McGaugh, J.L. (1996). Amygdaloid nuclei lesions differentially affect glucocorticoid-induced memory enhancement in an inhibitory avoidance task. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 65, 1– 8.

Sandi, C., Loscertales, M., & Guaza, C. (1997). Experience-dependent facilitating effect of corticosterone on spatial memory formation in the water maze. European Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 637–642.

[Page 518]

In many of the human studies demonstrating an impairing effect of elevated cortisol on memory, the stressor or glucocorticoid is applied before stimulus presentation and learning, and recall is tested within 1–2 hr. In such a paradigm, cortisol levels are elevated during all memory phases: the learning period (initial encoding of the information), consolidation (the continuous transfer of information into longer term storage), and retrieval (recall of information from memory stores). Disruption of any one of these memory processes could account for detrimental effects of stress on memory and might also obscure any facilitated process. Roozendaal (2002) has theorized that under stressful conditions, consolidation of novel information related to the situation is enhanced so that one is more likely to later remember where the lion naps or when the hostile supervisor takes his coffee break. However, in order to facilitate this new learning during

[Page 519]

arousing situations, competing processes of retrieving old information (which could result in retroactive interference) may be inhibited. Thus, it may be impaired retrieval that accounts for many of the human findings cited above, rather than stress effects on learning or consolidation.

Indeed, recent studies that have managed to isolate consolidation as a target process point to a facilitative effect of stress. These investigations typically administer the stress induction or corticosteroids prior to or immediately following training (during encoding and consolidation), followed by retention testing at least 24 hr later. Retrieval is therefore tested after corticosterone levels have returned to baseline, thereby isolating the effect of glucocorticoids on consolidation of new memories. Animal studies using this paradigm have generally found a facilitative effect of moderate levels of glucocorticoids on consolidation (Conrad, Lupien, & McEwen, 1999; Oitzl & de Kloet, 1992; Roozendaal & McGaugh, 1996; Sandi, Loscertales, & Guaza, 1997). Several recent human studies have also found a facilitative effect of stress or administered cortisol on encoding and consolidation of visual information with affective content when recall is tested at least 24 hr after learning (Buchanan & Lovallo, 2001; Cahill, Gorski, & Le, 2003); an additional study found this for both emotionally arousing and neutral information (Abercrombie, Kalin, Thurow, Rosenkranz, & Davidson, 2003).


Abercrombie, H. C., Kalin, N. H., Thurow, M. E., Rosenkranz, M. A., & Davidson, R. J. (2003). Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 505–516.

Buchanan, T. W., & Lovallo, W. R. (2001). Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 307–317.

Cahill, L., Gorski, L., & Le, K. (2003). Enhanced human memory consolidation with post-learning stress: Interaction with the degree of arousal at encoding. Learning & Memory, 10, 270–274.

Conrad, C. D., Lupien, S. J., & McEwen, B. S. (1999). Support for a bimodal role for Type II adrenal steroid receptors in spatial memory. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 72, 39–46.

Oitzl, M. S., & de Kloet, E. R. (1992). Selective corticosteroid antagonists modulate specific aspects of spatial orientation learning. Behavioral Neuroscience, 106, 62–71.

Roozendaal, B. (2002). Stress and memory: Opposing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation and memory retrieval. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 578–595.

Roozendaal, B., & McGaugh, J. L. (1996). Amygdaloid nuclei lesions differentially affect glucocorticoid-induced memory enhancement in an inhibitory avoidance task. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 65, 1–8.

Sandi, C., Loscertales, M., & Guaza, C. (1997). Experience-dependent facilitating effect of corticosterone on spatial memory formation in the water maze. European Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 637–642.

Anmerkungen

Although nearly identical (even with regard to the references) nothing has been marked as a citation. Beckner et al. are mentioned on the previous page, but without indication that the following page will be a copy from their paper.

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(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

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However, the findings for consolidation of verbal information are weak. One study suggested a facilitative effect of administered cortisol on consolidation of word recall when tested after a delay (Abercrombie et al., 2003), whereas others have found no difference between cortisol administration (de Quervain, Roozendaal, Nitsch, McGaugh & Hock, 2000) or stress (Wolf, Schommer, Hellhammer, Reischies & Kirschbaum, 2002) and controls. Thus, there is evidence for a facilitative effect of stress and cortisol on the consolidation of visual information, but little for verbal information.

Abercrombie, H.C., Kalin, N.H., Thurow, M.E., Rosenkranz, M.A., & Davidson, R.J. (2003). Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 505-516.

de Quervain, D.J., Roozendaal, B., Nitsch, R.M., McGaugh, J.L., & Hock C. (2000). Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 313-314.

Wolf, O.T., Schommer, N., Hellhammer, D.H., Reischies, F.M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2002). Moderate psychosocial stress appears not to impair recall of words learned four weeks prior to stress exposure. Stress, 5, 59-64.

It is interesting to note, however, that of the several studies that have examined verbal memory by using the methodology described above, the findings for consolidation of verbal information are weak. One study suggested a facilitative effect of administered cortisol on consolidation of word recall when tested after a delay (Abercrombie et al., 2003), whereas others have found no difference between cortisol administration (de Quervain, Roozendaal, Nitsch, McGaugh, & Hock, 2000) or stress (Wolf, Schommer, Hellhammer, Reischies, & Kirschbaum, 2002) and controls. Thus, there is evidence for a facilitative effect of stress and cortisol on the consolidation of visual information, but little for verbal information.

Abercrombie, H. C., Kalin, N. H., Thurow, M. E., Rosenkranz, M. A., & Davidson, R. J. (2003). Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117, 505–516.

de Quervain, D. J., Roozendaal, B., Nitsch, R. M., McGaugh, J. L., & Hock, C. (2000). Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 313– 314.

Wolf, O. T., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., Reischies, F. M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2002). Moderate psychosocial stress appears not to impair recall of words learned 4 weeks prior to stress exposure. Stress, 5, 59–64.

Anmerkungen

Nothing is marked as a citation.

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(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[4.] Jm/Fragment 039 21 - Diskussion
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Researchers have also recently attempted to parse the effects of glucocorticoids on retrieval processes separate from learning and consolidation, and findings provide some support for Roozendaal’s (2002) theory that retrieval is impaired by stress. These studies present the stimuli to be learned in the first session under basal conditions and then apply the stressor or glucocorticoid just before retrieval on a subsequent session.

Roozendaal, B. (2002). Stress and memory; Opposing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation and retrieval. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 578-595.

Roozendaal, B. (2002). Stress and memory: opposing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation and memory retrieval. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 578-595.

Researchers have also recently attempted to parse the effects of glucocorticoids on retrieval processes separate from learning and consolidation, and findings provide some support for Roozendaal’s (2002) theory that retrieval is impaired by stress. These studies present the stimuli to be learned in the first session under basal conditions and then apply the stressor or glucocorticoid just before retrieval on a subsequent session.

Roozendaal, B. (2002). Stress and memory: Opposing effects of glucocorticoids on memory consolidation and memory retrieval. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 78, 578–595.

Anmerkungen

Though identical, the source is named only in the next paragraph, on the following page without apparent relation to the text documented here.

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(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[5.] Jm/Fragment 040 01 - Diskussion
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[Using this type of] design, de Quervain, Roozendaal and McGaugh (1998) found that both shock and glucocorticoids administered just before retention testing impaired retrieval of spatial information in rats. Two pharmacological studies in humans have also shown an impairing effect of elevated cortisol on the retrieval of words learned 24 hr before (de Quervain et al., 2000, 2003), and Kuhlmann, Piel and Wolf (2005) similarly found that a psychosocial stressor impaired recall of both positive and negative (but not neutral) words. Wolf and colleagues (2002), however, found no effect of a stressor on retrieval of words learned 4 weeks earlier compared with controls.

de Quervain, D.J., Henke, K., Aerni, A., Treyer, V., McGaugh, J.L., Berthold, T., Nitsch, R.M., Buck, A., Roozendaal, B., & Hock, C. (2003). Glucocorticoid-induced impairment of declarative memory retrieval is associated with reduced blood flow in the medial temporal lobe. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 1296–1302.

de Quervain, D.J., Roozendaal, B., & McGaugh, J.L. (1998). Stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval of long-term spatial memory. Nature, 394, 787-790.

de Quervain, D.J., Roozendaal, B., Nitsch, R.M., McGaugh, J.L., & Hock C. (2000). Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 313-314.

Kuhlmann, S., Piel, M., & Wolf, O.T. (2005b). Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 2977–2982.

Wolf, O.T., Schommer, N., Hellhammer, D.H., Reischies, F.M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2002). Moderate psychosocial stress appears not to impair recall of words learned four weeks prior to stress exposure. Stress, 5, 59-64.

Using this type of design, de Quervain, Roozendaal, and McGaugh (1998) found that both shock and glucocorticoids administered just before retention testing impaired retrieval of spatial information in rats. Two pharmacological studies in humans have also shown an impairing effect of elevated cortisol on the retrieval of words learned 24 hr before (de Quervain et al., 2000, 2003), and Kuhlmann, Piel, and Wolf (2005) similarly found that a psychosocial stressor impaired recall of both positive and negative (but not neutral) words. Wolf et al. (2002), however, found no effect of a stressor on retrieval of words learned 4 weeks earlier compared with controls.

de Quervain, D. J., Henke, K., Aerni, A., Treyer, V., McGaugh, J. L., Berthold, T., et al. (2003). Glucocorticoid-induced impairment of declarative memory retrieval is associated with reduced blood flow in the medial temporal lobe. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 1296–1302.

de Quervain, D. J., Roozendaal, B., & McGaugh, J. L. (1998, August 20). Stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval of long-term spatial memory. Nature, 394, 787–790.

de Quervain, D. J., Roozendaal, B., Nitsch, R. M., McGaugh, J. L., & Hock, C. (2000). Acute cortisone administration impairs retrieval of long-term declarative memory in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 313–314.

Kuhlmann, S., Piel, M., & Wolf, O. T. (2005). Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 2977–2982.

Wolf, O. T., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., Reischies, F. M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2002). Moderate psychosocial stress appears not to impair recall of words learned 4 weeks prior to stress exposure. Stress, 5, 59–64.

Anmerkungen

Word for word from the paper by Beckner et al. (2006). Nothing has been marked as a citation. Starting the next paragraph the source is named for the first time, though in that paragraph the text presented is from the original thesis of Beckner (2004). Thus again the origin of texts is obscured.

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(Graf Isolan) Agrippina1

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Results provided support for the facilitative effect of stress and endogenous cortisol on the consolidation of new information, providing the first evidence that stress enhances the consolidation of verbal information. Indeed, this evidence for a facilitative effect of stress on the consolidation of verbal memory stood in contrast with much of the literature. Many studies have found an impairing effect of cortisol on word or narrative recall by using both [psychosocial stress (Jelicic [sic], Geraerts, Merckelbach, & Guerrieri, 2004; Wolf et al., 2001) and glucocorticoid administration (Kirschbaum et al., 1996; Tops et al., 2003), although it is pertinent to note that these studies applied the stressor or glucocorticoid prior to stimulus presentation and tested recall within an hour of the manipulation, thereby elevating cortisol during encoding, consolidation, and retrieval.]

Jelici, M., Geraerts, E., Merckelbach, H., & Guerrieri, R. (2004). Acute stress enhances memory for emotional words, but impairs memory for neutral words. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114, 1343–1351.

Kirschbaum, C., Wolf, O.T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D.H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475-1483.

Tops, M., van der Pompe, G., Baas, D., Mulder, L.J., Den Boer, J.A., Meijman, T.F., Korf, J. (2003). Acute cortisol effects on immediate free recall and recognition of nouns depend on stimulus valence. Psychophysiology, 40, 167-173.

Wolf, O.T., Convit, A., McHugh, P.F., Kandil, E., Thorn, E.L., De Santi, S., McEwen, B.S., & de Leon, M.J. (2001a). Cortisol differentially affects memory in young and elderly men. Behavioural Neuroscience, 105, 1002-1011.

Wolf, O.T., Schommer, N.C., Hellhammer, D.H., McEwen, B.S., & Kirschbaum, C. (2001b). The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 711-720.

The results provide support for the facilitative effect of stress and endogenous cortisol on the consolidation of new information — and provide the first evidence of this for verbal information by using a stress manipulation. [...]

Indeed, our evidence for a facilitative effect of stress on the consolidation of verbal memory is a new finding and in contrast to much of the literature. Many studies have found an impairing effect of cortisol on word or narrative recall by using both psychosocial stress (Jelici, Geraerts, Merckelbach, & Guerrieri, 2004; Wolf, Schommer, et al., 2001) and glucocorticoid administration (Kirschbaum et al., 1996; Tops et al., 2003), although these studies applied the stressor or glucocorticoid prior to stimulus presentation and tested recall within an hour of the manipulation, thereby elevating cortisol during encoding, consolidation, and retrieval.


Jelici, M., Geraerts, E., Merckelbach, H., & Guerrieri, R. (2004). Acute stress enhances memory for emotional words, but impairs memory for neutral words. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114, 1343–1351.

Kirschbaum, C., Wolf, O. T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475–1483.

Tops, M., van der Pompe, G., Baas, D., Mulder, L. J., Den Boer, J. A., Meijman, T. F., et al. (2003). Acute cortisol effects on immediate free recall and recognition of nouns depend on stimulus valence. Psychophysiology, 40, 167–173.

Wolf, O. T., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., McEwen, B. S., & Kirschbaum, C. (2001). The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 711–720.

Anmerkungen

At the end of the paragraph on the following page the source is named (cp. Jm/Fragment_041_01). Otherwise nothing is marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[7.] Jm/Fragment 041 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-17 20:58:11 Hindemith
BauernOpfer, Beckner et al 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Graf Isolan
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Quelle: Beckner et al 2006
Seite(n): 524, Zeilen: left col. 51-55 - right col. 1-5
[Many studies have found an impairing effect of cortisol on word or narrative recall by using both] psychosocial stress (Jelicic [sic], Geraerts, Merckelbach, & Guerrieri, 2004; Wolf et al., 2001) and glucocorticoid administration (Kirschbaum et al., 1996; Tops et al., 2003), although it is pertinent to note that these studies applied the stressor or glucocorticoid prior to stimulus presentation and tested recall within an hour of the manipulation, thereby elevating cortisol during encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. The detrimental effects of stress on memory in these studies may thus be due to impaired retrieval (Beckner et al., 2006).

Beckner, V.E., Tucker, D.M., Delville, Y., & Mohr, D.C. (2006). Stress facilitates consolidation of verbal memory for a film but does not affect retrieval. Behavioural Neuroscience, 120, 518-527.

Jelici, M., Geraerts, E., Merckelbach, H., & Guerrieri, R. (2004). Acute stress enhances memory for emotional words, but impairs memory for neutral words. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114, 1343–1351.

Kirschbaum, C., Wolf, O.T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D.H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475-1483.

Tops, M., van der Pompe, G., Baas, D., Mulder, L.J., Den Boer, J.A., Meijman, T.F., Korf, J. (2003). Acute cortisol effects on immediate free recall and recognition of nouns depend on stimulus valence. Psychophysiology, 40, 167-173.

Wolf, O.T., Convit, A., McHugh, P.F., Kandil, E., Thorn, E.L., De Santi, S., McEwen, B.S., & de Leon, M.J. (2001a). Cortisol differentially affects memory in young and elderly men. Behavioural Neuroscience, 105, 1002-1011.

Wolf, O.T., Schommer, N.C., Hellhammer, D.H., McEwen, B.S., & Kirschbaum, C. (2001b). The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 711-720.

Many studies have found an impairing effect of cortisol on word or narrative recall by using both psychosocial stress (Jelici, Geraerts, Merckelbach, & Guerrieri, 2004; Wolf, Schommer, et al., 2001) and glucocorticoid administration (Kirschbaum et al., 1996; Tops et al., 2003), although these studies applied the stressor or glucocorticoid prior to stimulus presentation and tested recall within an hour of the manipulation, thereby elevating cortisol during encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. The detrimental effects of stress on memory in these studies may be due to impaired retrieval.

Jelici, M., Geraerts, E., Merckelbach, H., & Guerrieri, R. (2004). Acute stress enhances memory for emotional words, but impairs memory for neutral words. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114, 1343-1351.

Kirschbaum, C., Wolf, O. T., May, M., Wippich, W., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1996). Stress- and treatment-induced elevations of cortisol levels associated with impaired declarative memory in healthy adults. Life Sciences, 58, 1475-1483.

Tops, M., van der Pompe, G., Baas, D., Mulder, L. J., Den Boer, J. A., Meijman, T. F., et al. (2003). Acute cortisol effects on immediate free recall and recognition of nouns depend on stimulus valence. Psychophysiology, 40, 167-173.

Wolf, O. T., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., McEwen, B. S., & Kirschbaum, C. (2001). The relationship between stress induced cortisol levels and memory differs between men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 26, 711-720.

Anmerkungen

Although the source is given, it is not made clear how detailed the takeover has been. No part of the text is marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[8.] Jm/Fragment 331 04 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-13 07:35:48 Graf Isolan
Beckner et al 2006, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Verschleierung
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Hindemith
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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 331, Zeilen: 4-9
Quelle: Beckner et al 2006
Seite(n): 518, Zeilen: r.col: 22ff
In the majority of human studies demonstrating an impairing effect of elevated cortisol on memory, the stressor or GC is applied before stimulus presentation and encoding, and recall is tested within 1-2 hours. In such a paradigm, cortisol levels are elevated during all memory phases (i.e., encoding, consolidation and retrieval). Disruption of any one of these memory processes could account for detrimental effects on memory and might obscure any facilitated process. In many of the human studies demonstrating an impairing effect of elevated cortisol on memory, the stressor or glucocorticoid is applied before stimulus presentation and learning, and recall is tested within 1–2 hr. In such a paradigm, cortisol levels are elevated during all memory phases: the learning period (initial encoding of the information), consolidation (the continuous transfer of information into longer term storage), and retrieval (recall of information from memory stores). Disruption of any one of these memory processes could account for detrimental effects of stress on memory and might also obscure any facilitated process.
Anmerkungen

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Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

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