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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Pamela Dalton
Titel    The role of stimulus in context-dependent recognition
Zeitschrift    Memory and Cognition
Ausgabe    31
Jahr    1993
Seiten    223-234
URL    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/14730444_The_role_of_stimulus_familiarity_in_context-dependent_recognition

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    4


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Jm/Fragment 150 06 - Diskussion
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Empirical support for the notion that stimulus familiarity plays a role takes several forms. Davies and Milne (1982) showed participants pictures of both novel and famous faces while varying background, pose, and expression. They found reduced recognition performance for novel, but not famous, faces as a function of all three changes, thereby demonstrating differential local context effects for familiar as opposed to novel faces. As such, it would seem plausible that modulation by the environmental context might differ for novel and familiar stimuli. In any case, the important role of stimulus familiarity is also supported by findings within the domain of animal learning, whereby context effects on recognition-like tasks have traditionally been more reliable. Recognizing the importance of the relation between stimulus and context, Lubow, Rifkin, and Alek (1976) showed that exposing a stimulus prior to presenting it in a novel environmental context (i.e., making it familiar) enhanced perceptual learning, in comparison with the simple presentation of a novel stimulus in the learning context.

There are other salient reasons why a stimulus attribute such as familiarity might be a parameter of contextual modulation. Whether contextual attributes such as temporal or spatial information are present or absent constitutes one of the critical distinctions that Tulving (1972) makes between episodic and semantic memory systems. According to Tulving, multiple presentations of an item allow that item to be abstracted from its context. As the item representation becomes progressively more semantic in nature, its reliance on specific contextual attributes for recognition is diminished.


Davis [sic], G. & Milne, A. (1982). Recognising faces in and out of context. Current Psychological Research, 2, 235-246.

Lubow, R. E., Rifkin, B., & Alek, M. (1976). The context effect: the relationship between stimulus pre-exposure and environmental pre-exposure determines subsequent learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 38-47.

Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of Memory (pp. 382-404). New York: Academic Press.

Empirical support for the notion that stimulus familiarity plays a role takes several forms. Davies and Milne (1982) showed subjects pictures of both novel and celebrity faces while varying background, pose, and expression. They found reduced recognition performance for novel, but not celebrity, faces as a function of all three changes. Unfortunately, they used a small number of faces and the performance for the familiar faces was at ceiling, causing some interpretive problems with their data. Yet the demonstration of differential local context effects for familiar as opposed to novel faces was encouraging. It seemed plausible that modulation by the environmental context might differ for novel and familiar stimuli as well.

The important role of stimulus familiarity is also supported by results in the domain of animal learning, where context effects on recognition-like tasks have traditionally been more reliable. Recognizing the importance of the relation between stimulus and context, Lubow, Rifkin, and Alek (1976) showed that exposing a stimulus prior to presenting it in a novel environmental context (i.e., making it familiar) enhanced perceptual learning, in comparison with the simple presentation of a novel stimulus in the learning context.

There are other salient reasons why a stimulus attribute like familiarity might be a parameter of contextual modulation. Whether contextual attributes such as temporal or spatial information are present or absent constitutes one of the critical distinctions that Tulving (1972) makes between episodic and semantic memory systems. According to Tulving, multiple presentations of an item allow that item to be abstracted from its context. As the item representation becomes progressively more semantic in nature, its reliance on specific contextual attributes for recognition is diminished.


DAVIES, G., & MILNE, A. (1982). Recognising faces in and out of context. Current Psychological Research, 2, 235-246.

LUBOW, R. E., RIFKIN, B., & ALEK, M. (1976). The context effect: The relationship between stimulus pre-exposure and environmental pre-exposure determines subsequent learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 38-47.

TULVING, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of memory (pp. 382-404). New York: Academic Press.

Anmerkungen

The source is mentioned further up, but without indication that the following two paragraphs might have been taken from it. Continued on the next page: Jm/Fragment_151_01

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[2.] Jm/Fragment 151 01 - Diskussion
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[The representation can be] considered in a state of “decontextualization,” whereby it can be activated and the corresponding item can be recognized without the reinstatement of cues present at encoding.

In a number of studies of face recognition, somewhat similar to abstract stimulus recognition, changes in local contexts such as semantic labels, face associates, or background cues have resulted in decreased recognition accuracy. In addition, in several demonstrations, changes in global context have resulted in decreased recognition for unfamiliar faces (e.g., Cann & Ross, 1989; Gage & Safer, 1985; Malpass & Devine, 1981). Abstract stimulus recognition, like face recognition, may rely on context reinstatement to a greater extent than word recognition does because of the importance of stimulus novelty. With verbal stimuli, the identification of a letter string as a word requires experience with that particular letter string; hence it can hardly be considered a novel stimulus.

[page 224]

The representation can be considered in a state of "decontextualization," whereby it can be activated and the corresponding item can be rec-

[page 225]

ognized without the reinstatement of cues present at encoding.2

[...]

[...] In a number of studies of face recognition, changes in local contexts such as semantic labels, face associates, or background cues have resulted in decreased recognition accuracy. In addition, in several demonstrations, changes in global context have resulted in decreased recognition for unfamiliar faces (see, e.g., Cann & Ross, 1989; Gage & Safer, 1985; Malpass & Devine, 1981).

Face recognition may rely on context reinstatement more than word recognition does because of the importance of stimulus novelty. With verbal stimuli, the identification of a letter string as a word requires experience with that particular letter string; hence it can hardly be considered a novel stimulus.


2. [...]

Anmerkungen

The source is mentioned on the previous page as well as on the next page. But neither mention suggests that any text has been quoted from the source.

The parallel text begins on the previous page: Jm/Fragment_150_06

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Indeed, Baddeley and colleagues (Baddeley & Woodhead, 1982; Godden & Baddeley, 1980) have proposed that recognition, unlike recall, is not contextually dependent unless context and stimulus are interactively encoded or integrated at study. Thus, the contextual encoding of the environmental features that took place did so in the absence of demands for intentional interactive processing.

[...] The need for a within-subjects design with respect to global context manipulations is evident when one considers the potential for significant criterion changes for study items tested in different environmental conditions. A within-subjects design would avoid this problem in the global context manipulation. [...] Furthermore, regarding the Experimental Context hypothesis, Fernández and Glenberg (1985) proposed that laboratory context manipulations are inherently ineffective because, from the subject’s perspective, all environmental context changes occur within the broader “Experimental context.”

[page 225]

The need for a within-subjects design with respect to global context manipulations is evident when one considers the potential for significant criterion changes for study items tested in different environmental conditions. A within-subjects design avoids this problem in the global context manipulation.

[page 231]

To account for this dissociation between memory measures, Baddeley and his colleagues (Baddeley& Woodhead, 1982; Godden & Baddeley, 1980) have proposed that recognition, unlike recall, is not contextually dependent unless context and stimulus are interactively encoded or integrated at study. [...] The contextual encoding of the environmental features that took place did so in the absence of demands for intentional interactive processing.

[page 232]

The experimental context hypothesis. Fernandez and Glenberg (1985) [made one of the more rigorous and systematic attempts to demonstrate context effects on memory. After failing to find context-dependent recognition or recall in over 300 subjects, they] proposed that laboratory context manipulations are inherently ineffective because, from the subject's perspective, all environmental context changes occur within the broader "experimental context."

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The source is mentioned further up on the page, but without any indication that the here documented passages can also be found in the source. To be continued on the next page: Jm/Fragment_153_01

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[This overriding experimental context diminishes the salience of any environmental] manipulations between study and test. Fernández and Glenberg’s proposal has received some empirical support from a study in which a radical context change was employed, with subjects’ recognition memory being tested over the telephone when they were at home (Canas & Nelson, 1986). This overriding experimental context diminishes the salience of any environmental manipulations between study and test. Fernandez and Glenberg's intriguing proposal has received some empirical support from a study in which a radical context change was employed, with subjects' recognition memory being tested over the telephone when they were at home (Canas & Nelson, 1986).
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The source is mentioned one page further up, but without any indication that any text might have been taken from it. The parallel text starts on the previous page: Jm/Fragment_152_10

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