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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Sally S. Dickerson and Margaret E. Kemeny
Titel    Acute Stressors and Cortisol Responses: A Theoretical Integration and Synthesis of Laboratory Research
Zeitschrift    Psychological Bulletin
Jahr    2004
Nummer    130
Seiten    355-391
DOI    10.1037/0033-2909.130.3.355

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    2


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Jm/Fragment 085 08 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-27 23:47:32 Hindemith
BauernOpfer, Dickerson and Kemeny 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Quelle: Dickerson and Kemeny 2004
Seite(n): 355, Zeilen: left col 1ff - right col. 1-8
An extensive animal and human literature reports that psychological factors can influence the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which regulates the release of cortisol (see Chapter 1). Over the past half century, many studies have specifically focused on the effects of psychological stressors on cortisol activation. Despite the extensive magnitude of this research, Dickerson and Kemeny (2004) drew two broad conclusions from this literature as a whole. First, like physical stressors, psychological stressors are indeed capable of activating the HPA axis; a number of studies have reported that laboratory tasks such as public speaking or mental arithmetic can increase cortisol levels (e.g., Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). Second, the effects of psychological stressors on this physiological system are highly variable. Many studies have failed to find cortisol changes (e.g., Manuck et al., 1991), and recent reviews have highlighted the inconsistent effects of psychological stressors on cortisol activity (e.g., Biondi & Picardi, 1999). The vast heterogeneity in the literature indicates that all types of negative situations may not uniformly trigger cortisol changes (Mason, 1968).

Biondi, M. & Picardi, A. (1999): Psychological stress and neuroendocrine function in humans: the last two decades of research., Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 68(3), 114-50.

Dickerson, S. S. & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3), 355-391.

Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K.M., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1993). The "Trier Social Stress Test" - a tool for investigating psychobiology stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology, 28, 76-81.

Manuck, S.B., Cohen, S., Rabin, B.S., Muldoon, M.F., & Bachen, E.A. (1991). Individual differences in cellular immune responses to stress. Psychological Science, 2, 111-115.

Mason, J.W. (1968). A review of psychoendocrine research on the pituitary-adrenal cortical system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 576–607.

An extensive animal and human literature documents that psychological factors can influence the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which regulates the release of cortisol, an important hormone associated with psychological, physiological, and physical health functioning. Over the past half century, hundreds of studies have specifically focused on the effects of psychological stressors on cortisol activation. Despite the magnitude of this research enterprise, only two broad conclusions can be drawn from this literature as a whole. First, like physical stressors (e.g., electric shock, prolonged exercise), psychological stressors are indeed capable of activating the HPA axis; a number of studies have reported that laboratory tasks such as public speaking or mental arithmetic can increase cortisol levels (e.g., Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). Second, the effects of psychological stressors on this physiological system are highly variable. Many studies have failed to find cortisol changes (e.g., Manuck, Cohen, Rabin, & Muldoon, 1991), and recent narrative reviews have highlighted the inconsistent effects of psychological stressors on cortisol activity (e.g., Biondi & Picardi, 1999). The tremendous heterogeneity in the literature suggests that all types of negative situations may not uniformly trigger cortisol changes (Mason, 1968).

Biondi, M., & Picardi, A. (1999). Psychological stress and neuroendocrine function in humans: The last two decades of research. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 68, 114–150.

Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K. M., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1993). The “Trier Social Stress Test” — A tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology, 28, 76–81.

*Manuck, S. B., Cohen, S., Rabin, B. S., & Muldoon, M. F. (1991). Individual differences in cellular immune response to stress. Psychological Science, 2, 111-115.

Mason, J. W. (1968). A review of psychoendocrine research on the pituitary-adrenal cortical system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 576–607.

Anmerkungen

The extent of verbatim appropriation has not been marked.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

[2.] Jm/Fragment 086 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-28 00:09:07 Hindemith
Dickerson and Kemeny 2004, Fragment, Gesichtet, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Hans Selye (1956) argued that the stress response, which includes HPA activation, was nonspecific: all stressors, whether physical or psychological, would elicit the same physiological reaction. Others have concluded from the early work investigating the effects of severe physically traumatic experiences on cortisol activity (e.g., electric shock, injury) that only extreme or prolonged stressful conditions trigger cortisol elevations. Some have focused on the specific characteristics of the stressor, hypothesizing that contexts that are novel (Rose, 1980), unpredictable (Mason, 1968), uncontrollable (Henry & Grim, 1990; Sapolsky, 1993), or threatening, with the potential for harm or loss (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1996; Dienstbier, 1989), would be most likely to activate this system. However, even though a range of hypotheses have been put forward, the vast majority has not been empirically investigated, and the evidence, where present, is not conclusive.

Blascovich, J. & Tomaka, J. (1996). The Biopsychosocial Model of Arousal Regulation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 1-46.

Dienstbier, R.A. (1989). Arousal and physiological toughness: Implications for mental and physical health. Psychological Review, 96(1), 84-100.

Henry, J.P. & Grim, C.E. (1990). Psychosocial mechanisms of primary hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 8, 783–793.

Mason, J.W. (1968). A review of psychoendocrine research on the pituitary-adrenal cortical system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 576–607.

Rose, R.M. (1980). Endocrine responses to stressful psychological events. Advances in psychoneuroendocrinology. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 3, 251–276.

Selye, H. (1956). The Stress of Life. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hans Selye (1956) argued that the stress response, which includes HPA activation, was nonspecific: All stressors, whether physical or psychological, would elicit the same physiological reaction. Others have concluded from the early work investigating the effects of severe traumatic experiences on cortisol activity (e.g., electric shock, injury) that only extreme or prolonged stressful conditions trigger cortisol elevations. Some have focused on the specific characteristics of the stressor, hypothesizing that contexts that are novel (Rose, 1980), unpredictable (Mason, 1968), uncontrollable (Henry & Grim, 1990; Sapolsky, 1993), or threatening, with the potential for harm or loss (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1996; Dienstbier, 1989), would be most likely to activate this system. Although a number of hypotheses have been offered, many have never been empirically tested, and in other cases, the evidence is not as conclusive as popular wisdom may suggest.

Blascovich, J., & Tomaka, J. (1996). The biopsychosocial model of arousal regulation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 1–51.

Dienstbier, R. A. (1989). Arousal and physiological toughness: Implications for mental and physical health. Psychological Review, 96, 84–100.

Henry, J. P., & Grim, C. E. (1990). Psychosocial mechanisms of primary hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 8, 783–793.

Mason, J. W. (1968). A review of psychoendocrine research on the pituitary-adrenal cortical system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 576–607.

Rose, R. M. (1980). Endocrine responses to stressful psychological events. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 3, 251–276.

Sapolsky, R. M. (1993). Endocrinology alfresco: Psychoendocrine studies of wild baboons. Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 48, 437–468.

Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Anmerkungen

Nothing is marked as a citation. Only at the end of the paragraph the author tries to put what can be found in Dickerson and Kemeny (2004) into her own words.

A reference to Sapolsky (1993) is missing in the thesis.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), Hindemith

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