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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Scott M. Hayes, Lynn Nadel, Lee Ryan
Titel    The Effect of Scene Context on Episodic Object Recognition: Parahippocampal Cortex Mediates Memory Encoding and Retrieval Success
Zeitschrift    Hippocampus
Jahr    2007
Jahrgang    17
Nummer    9
Seiten    873–889
Anmerkung    The linked document starts the page count with 1 and this page count is used for the documentation.
DOI    10.1002/hipo.20319
URL    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3615418/pdf/nihms447882.pdf

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    3


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Jm/Fragment 108 04 - Diskussion
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Fragment, Gesichtet, Hayes et al 2007, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Quelle: Hayes et al 2007
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Further, the majority of context-dependent research has been conducted in one of only two environmental or global contexts, subsequently testing memory retrieval in either in the same or an alternate environmental context.

Other contextual manipulations have focused on more local aspects of visual context combined with predominantly verbal materials, such as text colour, background color, or font. Dulsky (1935), in a series of experiments, reported a decrease in memory performance when the background colour of target nonsense syllables changed between study and test. Since then, many experiments have demonstrated decreased retrieval performance with changes between encoding and retrieval in the local verbal context (Tulving & Osler, 1968; Light & Carter-Sobell, 1970), font format and orientation (Graf & Ryan, 1990), background colour (Mori & Graf, 1996), or foreground and background colour (Dougal & Rotello, 1999). In a comprehensive series of experiments, Murnane and Phelps (1993, 1994, 1995) manipulated context by changing foreground (colour of the word), background (colour of computer screen), and the location of the word (upper left, lower right, and so on). In multiple experiments, a context shift decrement (i.e., decreased memory for items presented in different contexts at study and test) was observed. The context shift decrement was significantly enhanced when the words were originally studied in a visually rich context (computer-generated virtual reality scenes, such as on a chalkboard in a classroom) relative to simple visual contexts (coloured font, coloured background), or in various locations on the computer screen (Murnane et al., 1999).

The aforementioned experiments presented verbal materials in one of only two environmental or global contexts (underwater or on land), and then memory was tested either in the same or the alternate environmental context.

Other contextual manipulations have focused on more local aspects of visual context combined with verbal materials, such as text color, background color, or font. Dulsky (1935), in an elegant series of experiments, reported a decrease in memory performance when the background color of target nonsense syllables changed between study and test. Since then, many experiments have demonstrated decreased memory performance with changes between encoding and retrieval in the local verbal context (Tulving and Osler, 1968; Light and Carter-Sobell, 1970), font format and orientation (Graf and Ryan, 1990), background color (Mori and Graf, 1996), or foreground and background color (Dougal and Rotello, 1999). In a comprehensive series of experiments, Murnane and Phelps (1993, 1994, 1995) manipulated context by changing foreground (color of the word), background (color of computer screen), and the location of the word (upper left, lower right, etc.). In multiple experiments, a context shift decrement (CSD) — decreased memory for items presented in different contexts at study and test was — observed. The CSD was significantly enhanced when the words were originally studied in a visually rich context (computer-generated virtual reality scenes, such as on a chalkboard in a classroom) relative to simple visual contexts (colored font, colored background, or in various locations on the computer screen; Murnane et al., 1999).

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[2.] Jm/Fragment 109 03 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-18 21:22:21 Hindemith
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Seite: 109, Zeilen: 3-7, 8-21
Quelle: Hayes et al 2007
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The majority of research into contextual binding between objects and context stems primarily from studies conducted on object perception or object identification in humans, which has typically shown that contextual information enhances object identification (Palmer, 1975; Biederman et al., 1982; Boyce & Pollatsek, 1992; Davenport & Potter, 2004). [Such experiments focused on pre-existing, semantic relationships between objects and their associated contexts.] For example, Bar and Ullman (1996) showed that the presence of a clearly identifiable object facilitated identification of an ambiguous object when the identifiable object was semantically related, as did the presentation of realistic spatial relationships between related objects. However, the implicit influence of visual context on memory for specific, episodically-mediated abstract paired-associates remains to be elucidated (however see Hayes, Nadel & Ryan, 2007 for episodic object recognition).

Neuroimaging studies of scene processing (Epstein & Kanwisher, 1998), object identification (Bar & Aminoff, 2003), and intentional retrieval of visual context information (Hayes et al., 2004) suggest that the medial temporal lobes, most likely the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), may be involved in visual context effects mediating episodic object recognition. Indeed, Hayes and colleagues (2007) recently found that the PHC is important not only for processing of scene information, but also plays a role in successful episodic memory encoding and retrieval.

The results suggest that PHC is important not only for processing of scene information, but also plays a role in successful episodic memory encoding and retrieval.

[page 2]

Evidence for the role of context in object memory comes primarily from research on object perception or object identification in humans, which has shown that contextual information enhances object identification (Palmer, 1975; Biederman et al., 1982; Boyce and Pollatsek, 1992; Davenport and Potter, 2004). For example, Bar and Ullman (1996) showed that the presence of a clearly identifiable object facilitated identification of an ambiguous object when the identifiable object was semantically related, as did the presentation of realistic spatial relationships between related objects.

[page 3]

However, the influence of visual context on memory for a specific, episodically presented object remains to be determined. [...]

[...]

[...] Neuroimaging studies of scene processing (Epstein and Kanwisher, 1998), object identification (Bar and Aminoff, 2003), and intentional retrieval of visual context information (Hayes et al., 2004) suggest that the medial temporal lobes, most likely the PHC, may be involved in visual context effects

[page 4]

mediating episodic object recognition[, although no study we are aware of has directly addressed this issue].

Anmerkungen

The source is mentioned, but is not made clear that the whole overview given here is taken from it.

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(Hindemith) Schumann

[3.] Jm/Fragment 341 08 - Diskussion
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Quelle: Hayes et al 2007
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Previous neuroimaging studies of scene processing, object identification, and intentional retrieval of visual context information suggest that the medial temporal lobes, most likely the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), may be involved in visual context effects mediating episodic object recognition. Hayes, Nadel and Ryan (2007) recently found that the PHC is important not only for processing of scene information, but also plays a role in successful episodic memory encoding and retrieval. [page 1]

[...] the results suggest that PHC is important not only for processing of scene information, but also plays a role in successful episodic memory encoding and retrieval.

[page 3]

Neuroimaging studies of scene processing (Epstein and Kanwisher, 1998), object identification (Bar and Aminoff, 2003), and intentional retrieval of visual context information (Hayes et al., 2004) suggest that the medial temporal lobes, most likely the PHC, may be involved in visual context effects

[page 4]

mediating episodic object recognition[, although no study we are aware of has directly addressed this issue].

Anmerkungen

The source is mentioned, but it is not clear to the reader that the overview before that has also been taken from the source.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

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