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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Almut Hupbach, Rebecca Gomez, Oliver Hardt, Lynn Nadel
Titel    Reconsolidation of episodic memories: A subtle reminder triggers integration of new information
Zeitschrift    Learning and Memory
Verlag    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Ausgabe    14 (1-2)
Datum    Jan-Feb 2007
Seiten    47–53
Anmerkung    Article published online in January 2007
ISSN    1072-0502/07
DOI    10.1101/lm.365707
URL    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1838545/

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    6


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Jm/Fragment 006 04 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-02-20 21:26:39 Schumann
Fragment, Gesichtet, Hupbach et al 2007, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Quelle: Hupbach et al 2007
Seite(n): 47, Zeilen: l.col: 34ff
[For example,] Walker and colleagues (2003) demonstrated reconsolidation in humans using a procedural motor-skill task that involved finger-tapping a simple sequence (e.g., 4-1-3-2). Twenty-four hours after original exposure to the sequence, participants briefly rehearsed the sequence, thereby reactivating it, and learned a second sequence (e.g., 2-3-1-4). When tested on Day 3, accuracy performance for Sequence 1 was significantly impaired relative to control subjects who did not rehearse Sequence 1 before learning Sequence 2. This shows that the reactivation of the memory for Sequence 1 on Day 2 destabilized it such that a competing motor pattern could interfere with the memory trace. Further, Galluccio (2005) and Galluccio and Rovee-Collier (2005), adopting a conditioning-based paradigm, investigated the fate of reactivated memories in infants trained to kick their foot to activate a mobile. After a delay period, infants were reminded of the event: The moving mobile was presented for a brief period during which it was no longer attached to the baby’s foot. Following reactivation, one group of infants learned to move a novel mobile. One day later, infants who were exposed to the novel mobile showed a modification of the reactivated memory such that they no longer recognized the original mobile reacted only to the novel one. Walker et al. (2003) recently demonstrated reconsolidation effects in humans. Participants were trained on a procedural motor-skill task that involved finger-tapping a simple sequence (e.g., 4-1-3-2). Twenty-four hours later they briefly rehearsed the sequence (reactivating it) and learned a second sequence (e.g., 2-3- 1-4). When tested on Day 3, accuracy performance for Sequence 1 was significantly impaired in comparison to a group of participants who did not rehearse Sequence 1 before learning Sequence 2. This shows that the reactivation of the memory for Sequence 1 on Day 2 destabilized it such that a competing motor pattern could interfere.

Galluccio (2005) and Galluccio and Rovee-Collier (2005) investigated the fate of reactivated memories in infants trained to kick their foot to activate a mobile. After a delay, infants were reminded of the event: The moving mobile was presented for a brief period during which it was no longer attached to the baby’s foot. After reactivation, one group of infants learned to move a novel mobile. One day later, infants who were exposed to the novel mobile showed a modification of the reactivated memory in that they no longer recognized the original mobile and solely reacted to the novel one.

Anmerkungen

The source is not referenced.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[2.] Jm/Fragment 208 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-11 07:19:07 Kybot
Fragment, Hupbach et al 2007, Jm, KeineWertung, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, ZuSichten

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Seite: 208, Zeilen: 1-13
Quelle: Hupbach et al 2007
Seite(n): 47, Zeilen: abstract
[Hupbach and colleagues] (2007) demonstrated the reconsolidation phenomenon in episodic memory in humans. University students learned a list of objects on Day 1. On Day 2, they either received a reminder or not, and then learned a second list. Memory for List 1 was tested immediately on Day 2 (Experiment 2) or on Day 3 (Experiment 1). Although the reminder did not moderate the number of items recalled from List 1 on either day, participants who received a reminder incorrectly intermixed items from the second list when recalling List 1 on Day 3. Experiment 2 showed that this effect did not occur immediately and was therefore not timedependent. The reminder did not affect memory for List 2 on Day 3 (Experiment 3). As such, modification occurred only for the original memory (i.e., List 1). This study demonstrates the integral role of reminders in the modification of episodic memory, that reconsolidation of episodic memory is time-dependent, and, contrary to previous reconsolidation findings, that reconsolidation is also a constructive process which supports the integration of new information into a memory trace. Recent demonstrations of “reconsolidation” suggest that memories can be modified when they are reactivated. Reconsolidation has been observed in human procedural memory and in implicit memory in infants. This study asks whether episodic memory undergoes reconsolidation. College students learned a list of objects on Day 1. On Day 2, they received a reminder or not, and then learned a second list. Memory for List 1 was tested immediately on Day 2 (Experiment 2) or on Day 3 (Experiment 1). Although the reminder did not moderate the number of items recalled from List 1 on either day, subjects who received a reminder incorrectly intermixed items from the second list when recalling List 1 on Day 3. Experiment 2 showed that this effect does not occur immediately and thus is time-dependent. The reminder did not affect memory for List 2 on Day 3 (Experiment 3), demonstrating that modification occurred only for the original memory (List 1). The study demonstrates the crucial role of reminders for the modification of episodic memory, that reconsolidation of episodic memory is time-dependent, and, in contrast to previous reconsolidation findings, that reconsolidation is also a constructive process, one that supports the incorporation of new information in memory.
Anmerkungen

The source is referenced, but it is not made clear that the formulations of the source have been taken as well.

Note also that the sentence following "This study demonstrates" could be understood as describing the research undertaken by the author of the thesis, and not as describing the research of Hupbach et al. (which in the reminder of the paragraph is referred to in past tense).

Sichter
(Hindemith)

[3.] Jm/Fragment 274 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-11 07:19:37 Kybot
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Nader and colleagues (2005) propose a reconsolidation process involving three steps: (1) Reactivation of the existing memory returning it to a labile state, (2) modification of the existing memory, and (3) reconsolidation of the modified memory over a period of time. Both Experiments 2a and 2b clearly demonstrated the first two steps (the reminder reactivated the original memory trace, and the presentation of the new triplet-forming stimulus modified the existing memory). These experiments also served to answer the question concerning whether the original memory was altered immediately or whether, as assumed by Nader (2003), memory modification involves a time-dependent reconsolidation process. Nader et al. (2005) propose a reconsolidation process involving three steps: (1) Reactivation of the existing memory returning it to a labile state, (2) modification of the existing memory, and (3) reconsolidation of the modified memory over a period of time. While Experiment 1 clearly demonstrates the first two steps (the reminder reactivated the memory for the original list, and the presentation of the new list modified the existing memory), an open question is whether memory was altered immediately or whether, as assumed by Nader (2003), memory modification involves a time-dependent reconsolidation process.
Anmerkungen

The source is not referenced.

Sichter
(Hindemith)

[4.] Jm/Fragment 274 14 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-12 20:48:05 Graf Isolan
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We herein demonstrate that the modification of episodic memories depends critically upon their preceding reactivation as suggested by the reconsolidation account. Similar to what has been found for Pavlovian conditioning (e.g., Nader et al., 2000), instrumental conditioning (e.g., Wang et al., 2005), and human procedural memory (Walker et al., 2003), reactivated episodic memories also undergo a time-dependent reconsolidation process: incorporation of new information did not occur immediately but was seen 24 hours after memory reactivation and subsequent presentation of new material. We show that the modification of episodic memories depends critically upon their preceding reactivation as suggested by the reconsolidation account.

Similar to what has been found for Pavlovian conditioning (e.g., Nader et al. 2000), instrumental conditioning (e.g., Wang et al. 2005), and human procedural memory (Walker et al. 2003), reactivated episodic memories also undergo a time-dependent reconsolidation process: Incorporation of new information did not occur immediately but was seen two days after memory reactivation and subsequent presentation of new material.

Anmerkungen

The source of the copied text is not referenced, although the source seems to have shown the same phenomenon.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[5.] Jm/Fragment 349 23 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-12 16:19:01 Graf Isolan
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As such, the modification of episodic memories depends critically upon their preceding reactivation as suggested by the reconsolidation account. Similar to what has been found for Pavlovian conditioning (e.g., [Nader et al., 2000), instrumental conditioning (e.g., Wang et al., 2005), and human procedural memory (Walker et al., 2003), reactivated episodic memories, in our study, underwent similar time-dependent reconsolidation processing.] We show that the modification of episodic memories depends critically upon their preceding reactivation as suggested by the reconsolidation account.

Similar to what has been found for Pavlovian conditioning (e.g., Nader et al. 2000), instrumental conditioning (e.g., Wang et al. 2005), and human procedural memory (Walker et al. 2003), reactivated episodic memories also undergo a time-dependent reconsolidation process:

Anmerkungen

The source is not referenced.

The same passage appears also on page 274 of the thesis: Jm/Fragment 274 14

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[6.] Jm/Fragment 350 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2014-01-12 22:16:38 Graf Isolan
Fragment, Gesichtet, Hupbach et al 2007, Jm, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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[Similar to what has been found for Pavlovian conditioning (e.g.,] Nader et al., 2000), instrumental conditioning (e.g., Wang et al., 2005), and human procedural memory (Walker et al., 2003), reactivated episodic memories, in our study, underwent similar time-dependent reconsolidation processing. Similar to what has been found for Pavlovian conditioning (e.g., Nader et al. 2000), instrumental conditioning (e.g., Wang et al. 2005), and human procedural memory (Walker et al. 2003), reactivated episodic memories also undergo a time-dependent reconsolidation process:
Anmerkungen

The source is not referenced.

See also: Jm/Fragment 349 23

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

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