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Autor     L. Nadel, J.D. Payne, W.J. Jacobs
Titel    The Relationship Between Episodic Memory and Context: Clues from Memory Errors Made While Under Stress
Zeitschrift    Physiological Research
Ausgabe    51 (Suppl. 1)
Jahr    2002
Seiten    S3-S11
Anmerkung    In the thesis the publication is referred to erroneously as: "Nadel, L. & Payne, J.D. (2002)"
ISSN    0862-8408
URL    http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/51%20Suppl%201/51_S3.pdf

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    11


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Jm/Fragment 029 04 - Diskussion
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Human and animal studies firmly establish that the high levels of glucocorticoids released during stress impair the function of the hippocampus, thereby weakening or completely disrupting those aspects of contextual and episodic memory subserved by this structure (De Quervain et al., 2000, Diamond & Rose, 1994, Lupien et al., 1998; Nadel & Jacobs, 1998; Newcomer et al., 1999). We reason herein that if stress interferes with the normal functions of the hippocampus, and the hippocampus is central to context effects in memory, then stress might interfere with those forms of memory dependent upon context and the binding it supports. Thus, we presently postulate that manipulations adversely affecting contextual encoding and retrieval, such as stress, should interfere with memory retrieval, [...] We argue that manipulations adversely affecting contextual encoding and retrieval should interfere with veridical remembering. Stress could be one such factor. [...] Human and animal studies firmly establish that the high levels of glucocorticoids released during stress impair the function of the hippocampus, weakening or completely disrupting those aspects of contextual and episodic memory subserved by this structure (De Quervain et al. 2000,Diamond and Rose 1994, Lupien et al. 1998, Nadel and Jacobs 1998, Newcomer et al. 1999).

We reasoned that if stress interferes with the normal functions of the hippocampus, and the hippocampus is central to context effects in memory, then stress might interfere with those forms of memory depending on context and the binding it supports.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[2.] Jm/Fragment 041 08 - Diskussion
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Nadel and Payne (2002) predicted that if binding of the disparate elements that make up a given episode involves spatial context, then stress might disrupt it. However, if spatial context is not involved, stress should be without effect. The researchers induced false memories in participants using the Deese (1959), Roediger-McDermott (1995), or “DRM”1 paradigm. In brief, participants studied numerous lists of semantically associated words (e.g. candy, sour, sugar, bitter, chocolate, cake, etc.). Each list was followed by a recognition task that consisted of three types of words: words that were actually presented (e.g. sugar), unrelated distractor words that were not presented (e.g. hat), and words that are highly related to the theme or ‘gist’ of the list, but that were not presented (e.g. sweet), termed “critical lures”. Participants generally falsely remember many of these critical lures in DRM Experiments. In fact, the typical pattern of results reveals high rates of false recognition that under some conditions can equal or even surpass true recognition rates for correctly identified words (see Roediger et al., 1998). The researchers were concerned with the fate of false memories in this paradigm if participants were subjected to stress prior to performing the task.

1 This is not to be confused with the ‘Day Reconstruction Method’ of autobiographical recall.

We predicted that if binding involves spatial context, then stress might disrupt it. However, if spatial context is not involved, stress should be without effect.

[...]

[...] We induced false memories in our subjects using the Deese (1959), Roediger-McDermott (1995), or “DRM” paradigm. In brief, subjects study numerous lists of semantically associated words (e.g. candy, sour, sugar, bitter, chocolate, cake, etc.). Each list is followed by a recognition task that consists of three types of words: words that were actually presented (e.g. sugar), unrelated distractor words that were not presented (e.g. hat), and words that are highly related to the theme or ‘gist’ of the list, but that were not presented (e.g. sweet), called “critical lures”. Perhaps not surprisingly, subjects routinely falsely remember many of these critical lures in DRM experiments. In fact, the typical pattern of results reveals high rates of false recognition that under some conditions can equal or even surpass hit rates for correctly identified words (see Roediger et al. 1998).

We wondered about the fate of false memories in this paradigm if participants were subjected to stress before performing the task.

Anmerkungen

The source is given, and it is clear that the experiments and results of Nadel et al. are reported here. What is not clear to the reader is that this reporting is done with the words of Nadel et al..

Sichter
(Hindemith)

[3.] Jm/Fragment 053 14 - Diskussion
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Human and animal studies firmly establish that the high levels of glucocorticoids released during stress impair the function of the hippocampus, thereby weakening or completely disrupting those aspects of contextual and episodic memory subserved by this structure. We reason herein that if stress interferes with the normal functions of the hippocampus, and the hippocampus is central to context effects in memory, then stress should interfere with those forms of memory dependent upon context and the binding it supports. Thus, we presently postulate that manipulations adversely affecting contextual encoding and retrieval, such as stress, should interfere with memory retrieval, [...] We argue that manipulations adversely affecting contextual encoding and retrieval should interfere with veridical remembering. Stress could be one such factor. [...] Human and animal studies firmly establish that the high levels of glucocorticoids released during stress impair the function of the hippocampus, weakening or completely disrupting those aspects of contextual and episodic memory subserved by this structure (De Quervain et al. 2000,Diamond and Rose 1994, Lupien et al. 1998, Nadel and Jacobs 1998, Newcomer et al. 1999).

We reasoned that if stress interferes with the normal functions of the hippocampus, and the hippocampus is central to context effects in memory, then stress might interfere with those forms of memory depending on context and the binding it supports.

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned here.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[4.] Jm/Fragment 343 09 - Diskussion
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Indeed, retrieving an episodic memory is largely a reconstructive act (Schacter & Tulving, 1994), and under some conditions this reconstruction can go awry. Our results suggest that correctly reconstructing an episode requires binding together the different elements of that episode, and as such depends integrally upon congruency between available contexts at encoding and retrieval. Retrieving an episodic memory is largely a reconstructive act (Schacter and Tulving 1994), and under some conditions this reconstruction can go awry. We suppose that correctly reconstructing an episode requires binding together the different elements of that episode (what was seen, heard, etc.), and that context plays a critical role in this binding process.
Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[5.] Jm/Fragment 344 01 - Diskussion
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[Failure to bind properly leads to the possibility of incorrect retrieval and consequently, false memory. Our research has thus] targeted local context, via its role in episodic binding, and identified it as an important element in the understanding of memory distortions. Failure to bind properly leads to the possibility of incorrect retrieval and consequently, false memory. Our research starts from this set of assumptions and targets context, via its role in episodic binding, as an important element in the understanding of memory distortions.
Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[6.] Jm/Fragment 344 14 - Diskussion
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Spreading activation theories of false recognition assert that exposure to a word causes the activation of semantically-related words (e.g., Collins & Loftus, 1975; Underwood, 1965). [...] Similarly, in terms of false recognition, presentation of an entire list of related words virtually guarantees that the critical lure will undergo considerable activation. An interpretation of such an effect pertains to an implicit associative response. Thus, activation of a nonpresented word may result in a sense of familiarity, or even the recollection that one actually encountered the word on the list when indeed they did not. Further, gist-processing accounts of false recognition (Brainerd & Reyna, 1998; Schacter et al., 1998) assert that subjects [remember the gist of what they have experienced (i.e. the ‘theme’ of the word-list), rather than the specific details (i.e. the individual words).] Spreading activation theories of false recognition assert that exposure to a word causes the activation of semantically related words (e.g. Collins and Loftus, 1975; Underwood, 1965). Presentation of an entire list of related words virtually guarantees that the critical lure will undergo considerable activation. This activation of a nonpresented word may result in a sense of familiarity, or even the recollection that one actually encountered the word on the list. [...]

Second, gist-processing accounts of false recognition (Brainerd and Reyna 1998, Schacter et al. 1998) assert that subjects remember the gist of what they have experienced (i.e. the ‘theme’ of the word-list), rather than the specific details (i.e. the individual words).

Anmerkungen

The source is not mentioned.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[7.] Jm/Fragment 345 01 - Diskussion
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[Further, gist-processing accounts of false recognition (Brainerd & Reyna, 1998; Schacter et al., 1998) assert that subjects] remember the gist of what they have experienced (i.e. the ‘theme’ of the word-list), rather than the specific details (i.e. the individual words). This reliance on gist leads naturally to false recognition of similar, but non-presented, words due to the high degree of semantic-relatedness between lures and presented words. Second, gist-processing accounts of false recognition (Brainerd and Reyna 1998, Schacter et al. 1998) assert that subjects remember the gist of what they have experienced (i.e. the ‘theme’ of the word-list), rather than the specific details (i.e. the individual words). This reliance on gist leads naturally to false recognition of similar, but non-presented, words because of the high degree of semantic-relatedness between lures and presented words.
Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[8.] Jm/Fragment 350 20 - Diskussion
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The literature indicates that hippocampus has a dense concentration of receptors for glucocorticoids (GCs), hormones released during stress (eg., McEwen et al., 1986). Further, human and animal studies firmly establish that the high levels of glucocorticoids released during stress impair the function of the hippocampus, thereby weakening or completely disrupting those aspects of contextual and episodic memory subserved by this structure (De Quervain et al., 2000; Nadel & Jacobs, [1998; Newcomer et al. 1999).] The hippocampus has a dense concentration of receptors for glucocorticoids, hormones released during stress (eg. McEwen et al. 1986 ). Human and animal studies firmly establish that the high levels of glucocorticoids released during stress impair the function of the hippocampus, weakening or completely disrupting those aspects of contextual and episodic memory subserved by this structure (De Quervain et al. 2000,Diamond and Rose 1994, Lupien et al. 1998, Nadel and Jacobs 1998, Newcomer et al. 1999).
Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

The copied text continues on the next page: Jm/Fragment 351 01

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[9.] Jm/Fragment 351 01 - Diskussion
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We therefore reasoned that if stress interferes with the normal functions of the hippocampus, and the hippocampus is central to context effects in memory, then stress might interfere with those forms of memory depending on context and the binding it supports. We reasoned that if stress interferes with the normal functions of the hippocampus, and the hippocampus is central to context effects in memory, then stress might interfere with those forms of memory depending on context and the binding it supports.
Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Cf. Jm/Fragment_053_14 where the same text has been used.

The copied text starts on the previous page: Jm/Fragment_350_20

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(Hindemith) Agrippina1

[10.] Jm/Fragment 353 16 - Diskussion
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More specifically, while not interfering with memory for the individual items, which are represented in cortex, stress impaired the ability of the hippocampus to code the context, and to bind the items and context into a contextually-specific episode. Without the hippocampus acting as a contextual anchor, ‘true’ details are more easily confused with ‘false’ details of a similar appearance and nature (Nadel et al., 2002). While not interfering with memory for the individual words, which are represented in cortex, stress impairs the ability of the hippocampus to code the spatial context, and to bind the words and specific details associated with the words into a contextually-specific episode.

[page 9]

Without the hippocampus acting as a spatial-contextual anchor, veridical details (such as the words themselves) are more easily confused with ‘false’ details (such as critical lures) of a similar appearance and nature.

Anmerkungen

The Source is given at the end of the copied text, as well as further up (not documented). However, it does not become clear that the text has been copied almost verbatim.

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(Hindemith)

[11.] Jm/Fragment 358 06 - Diskussion
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More specifically, while not interfering with memory for the individual items, which are represented in cortex, stress impairs the ability of the hippocampus to code the context, and to bind the items and context into a contextually-specific episode. Without the hippocampus acting as a contextual anchor, ‘true’ details are more easily confused with ‘false’ details of a similar appearance and nature. [page 8]

While not interfering with memory for the individual words, which are represented in cortex, stress impairs the ability of the hippocampus to code the spatial context, and to bind the words and specific details associated with the words into a contextually-specific episode.

[page 9]

Without the hippocampus acting as a spatial-contextual anchor, veridical details (such as the words themselves) are more easily confused with ‘false’ details (such as critical lures) of a similar appearance and nature.

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(Hindemith) Schumann

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